Flashcards in Course Summary Deck (21)
Medicine based on the ___ has the greatest measurable successes.
What are CAMs?
Medical treatments not supported by convincing empirical evidence.
What aspects of a CAM might not be supported by science?
1. Mode of Action
Which types of evidence are the most convincing?
Meta-analyses and systematic reviews.
What is the weakest type of evidence?
Why are anecdotes the weakest type of evidence?
They're not controlled.
Observational studies can show ....
correlations between phenomena.
What is a limitation of observational studies?
They can't show causation.
Best way to determine cause and effect?
The best experiments have...
Large sample sizes.
Use of appropriate statistical tests.
Statistical tests are used to...
decide if we should reject the null hypothesis.
Statistical tests generate a...
What p-value is usually used?
Research reports are more reliable if published in...
Are all referred journals of equal quality?
Examples of modes of action may be at odds with science...
Examples of some treatments that may be effective...
Acupuncture for lower back pain.
Active ingredients in some herbs.
Examples of treatments with a sensible mode of action but aren't effective...
Many dietary supplements.
Some herbs with non-standardized amounts of active ingredients.
Examples of CAMs that lack supporting scientific evidence for mode of action and for their treatments...
Energy therapies. Magnet therapy.
Cranial & visceral osteopathy.
Why do people report positive results for ineffective CAMs?
Placebo effect. Condition was going to get better on its own anyway. Hope. Will to please. Positive effects of touch and being listened to.