Chapter 13 - Social Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13 - Social Psychology Deck (50)
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1

attribution theory

that we explain someone else behaviour by crediting either the situation or the persons disposition

2

fundamental attribution theory

the tendency for observers, when analyzing others behaviour to underestimate the impact of a situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition

3

peripheral route persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speakers attractiveness

4

central route persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favourable thoughts

5

foot in the door phenomenon

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a large request

6

role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

7

cognitive dissonance theory

theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. for example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes

8

conformity

adjusting our behaviour or thinking to coincide with a group standard

9

normative social influence

resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

10

informational social influence

resulting from ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality

11

social control

power of the situation

12

personal control

power of the individual

13

social facilitation

improved performance on simple or well learned tasks in the presence of others

14

social loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

15

deindividuation

the loss of self awareness and self restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

16

group polarization

the enhancement of a groups prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

17

groupthink

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

18

prejudice

an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory action

19

implicit racial association

even people who deny harboring racial prejudice may carry negative associations

20

unconscious patronization

assessing things differently when you know the persons race

21

race influenced perceptions

our expectations influence how we see things

22

reflexive body responses

even people who consciously express little prejudice may give off telltale signals as their body responds selectively to anothers race. this may show up in facial muscle responses and in the activation of their emotion processing amygdala

23

violent criminals

have diminished activity in the frontal lobes

24

what does high testosterone result in?

aggression

25

just world phenomenon

the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get

26

ingroup

us - the people with whom we share a common identity

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outgroup

them - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup

28

in-group bias

the tendency to favour our own group

29

scapegoat theory

that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

30

williams syndrome

individuals who lack fear and its associated activity in the emotion processing amygdala. they also display lack of racial stereotypes and prejudice