Chapter 11 - What Drives Us Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - What Drives Us Deck (42)
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1

motivations

arise from the interplay between nature (bodily push) and nurture (the 'pulls' from our thought processes and culture)

2

four perspectives for motivated behaviour

instinct theory, drive-reduction theory, arousal theory, and Abraham maslow's hierarchy of needs

3

instinct theory (evolutionary perspective)

focuses on genetically predisposed behaviour.

4

instinct

a complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

5

drive reduction theory

focuses on how we respond to our inner pushes. the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

6

homeostasis

the maintenance of a steady internal state

7

incentive

a postive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour

8

arousal theory

focuses on finding the right level of stimulation

9

yerkes-dodson law

the Principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases

10

abraham maslow's hierarchy of needs

focuses on the priority of some needs over others. Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

11

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for the body tissues, when its level is low, we feel hunger

12

arcuate nucleus

a centre that secretes appetite-stimulating hormones

13

ghrelin

a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach; sends 'Im hungry' to the brain

14

insulin

hormone secreted by the pancreas; controls blood glucose

15

leptin

protein hormone secreted by fat cells, when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decreases hunger

16

orexin

hunger-triggering hormone secreted by the hypothalamus

17

PYY

digestive tract hormone; send 'Im not hungry' signals to the brain

18

set point

the point at which your 'weight thermostat' is supposedly set. when your body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lower metabolic rate may combine to restore lost weight

19

basal metabolic rate

the rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when at rest

20

neophobia

dislike of unfamiliar things

21

ecology of eating

-presence of others tend to amplify our natural behaviour tendencies.
-you eat more if the portion is bigger
-If you have multiple options you may eat more

22

asexual

having no sexual attraction to others

23

testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones. both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs during the fetal period, and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

24

estrogen

sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics. in nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

25

the sexual response cycle; masters and johnson

excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution

26

excitement

genital areas become engorged with blood. clitoris and penis swell. breasts and nipples may enlarge

27

plateau

breathing, pulse and blood pressure increase. penis is fully engorged and there may be fluid at the end (enough sperm for contraception). vaginal secretion continues to increase and her clitoris retracts

28

orgasm

muscle contractions all over the body. a womens arousal and orgasm facilitate conception: propel semen, position the uterus and draw sperm inward. same regions of the brain are active in both men and women and same feeling of orgasm

29

resolution

body slowly returns to its unaroused state as the genital blood vessels release their accumulated blood. it happens a lot quicker if an orgasm has happened

30

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.