Chapter 15 - Personality Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Personality Disorders Deck (58)
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1

psychological disorders

a syndrome marked by clinically significant disturbance in an individuals life (cognition, emotion regulation, behaviour)

2

medical model

the concept that diseases, in this care, psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed , treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital

3

amok

in Malaysia, it describes sudden outbursts of violent behaviour

4

susto

latin American term, which is a condition marked by anxiety, restlessness and fear of black magic

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taijin kyofusho

in Japan, a social anxiety about appearance, combined with a readiness to blush and a fear of eye contact

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epigenetics

the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

7

classification

aims to predict the disorders future course, suggest appropriate treatment and prompt research into its causes

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DSM-5

the American psychiatric association's diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. CRITIQUE: turning everything into a disorder

9

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

three times more likely in boys. a psychological disorder marked by extreme inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity

10

immigrant paradox

those that are born into a country that is not their ethnicity are at a higher risk of mental disorder than those who have immigrated.

11

anxiety disorders

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety, or maladaptive behaviours that reduce anxiety

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generalized anxiety disorder

an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. depression and high blood pressure. women are two times more likely. by age 50, this disorder becomes rare.

13

panic disorder

anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations. often followed by worry over a possible next attack. 1 in 75 people. smokers are two times more likely and show greater symptoms from the nicotine

14

agoraphobia

fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult when panic strikes

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phobia

an anxiety disorder marked by persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity or situation

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OCD

a disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions) or both

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PTSD

a disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawals, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia. some people are more susceptible to PTSD because they have more sensitive emotion-processing limbic systems that flood their bodies with stress hormones. PTSD patients have a smaller amygdala. twins are more likely to share PTSD cognitive risk factors. odds of getting this disorder are two times more likely for women

18

survivor resiliency

ability to recover after severe stress

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stimulus generalization

when a person experiences a fearful event and later develops a fear of similar event. Renforcements: help maintain them.

20

hyperviligant

people with anxiety disorders, that blow things out of proportion

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anxiety gene

affects brain levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that influences sleep, mood and attention to negative images.

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anterior cingulate cortex

a brain region that monitors our actions and checks for errors, seems especially likely to be hyperactive

23

major depressive disorder

a disorder in which a persons experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest of pleasure

24

mania

a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which a person's dangerously poor judgement is common. Positive emotions persist abnormally. speech is loud. adivice irritating. in milder forms=creativity. have little need for sleep. fewer sexual inhibitions

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bipolar disorder

a disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. Americans are twice as likely

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norepinephrine

increases arousal and boosts mood, is scarce during depression and overabundant during mania

27

rumination

compulsive fretting; overthinking about our problems and their causes. Thanks to the continuous firing of a frontal lobe area that stimulates attention

28

state dependant memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent to ones good or bad mood

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schizophrenia

a psychological disorder that is characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished inappropriate emotional expression.
- low frontal lobe brain activity
- dont have selective attention
- impaired theory of mind
- men struck 4 years earlier and more severely and more often
- 3x more likely for abused children
- abnormal brain tissue
- genetic predispositions
- excess dopamine receptors

30

delusion

a false belief, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders