Chapter 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14 Deck (97):
1

The percentage of blood cells in whole blood is called

Hematocrit

Hematocrit represents about 45% of the total blood volume and is also referred to as the HCT or packed cell volume (PCV)

2

The Buffy coat evidenced by separating blood cells is comprised of

Platelets and leukocytes

The Buffy coat contains the white blood cells and platelets suspended between the red blood cells and plasma

3

Which blood component transport most of the gases

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells transport most of the oxygen as oxyhemoglobin and about 8-25% of the carbon dioxide as carbaminohemoglobin.

4

Each red cell contains ?% of its volume as the pigment hemoglobin

33%

About 1/3 of the volume of an erythrocytes is hemoglobin

5

Which one is a agranulocyte?
A. Neutrophil
B. monocytes
C. Basophils
D. Easinophil

B. monocytes

The cells called agranulocyte are the monocytes and lymphocytes because they do not have the typical granules found in the other cells

6

Which condition is characterized by abnormal increase in red blood cell count
A. Polycythemia
B. anemia
C. Leukemia
D. Porphyria

A. Polycythemia

Porphyria involves abnormal metabolism of molecules related to heme

7

Which condition is caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12
A. Aplastic anemia
B. pernicious anemia
C. Hemolytic anemia
D. Hemorrhagic anemia

A. Pernicious anemia

8

Which cells are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes

Neutrophil

Mature neutrophil have a complex nuclear that appears to have many segments to it

9

Which cells are the rarest leukocytes

Basophils

Under normal conditions, eosinophils account for around 1-3% of the differential white cell count and basophils less than 1%

10

Which organ has the greatest role in synthesizing most blood nutrients?

Liver

The liver is the most actively metabolic organ in the body and synthesizes most of the blood proteins and nutrients from simple compounds such as glucose and amino acids

11

Which one is mainly comprised of triglycerides
A. HDL
B. LDL
C. VLDL
D. Chylomicrons

D. Chylomicrons

The chylomicrons are comprised mainly of triglyceride lipids with some protien

12

Which of these has the highest proportion of proteins
A. Chylomicrons
B. VLDL
C. LDL
D. HDL

D. HDL

The high density lipids (HDL) contain high concentrations of proteins and lesser amounts of lipids

13

Which lipoprotein has the highest percentage of cholesterol?
A. VLDL
B. LDL
C. HDL
D. Chylomicron

B. LDL

The low density lipoprotein transport most of the cholesterol to places of deposition such as the walls of coronary arteries

14

During protein catabolism ? Is produced as an end product by the liver

Urea

15

Which factor promotes the appearance of the platelet plug
A. Collagen
B. serotonin
C. Fibrinogen
D. Vasodilation

A. Collagen

Fibrinogen converts to fibrin

16

The precursor of all lines of blood cells is the

Hemocytoblast

Hemocytoblast is a totipotent blood stem cell

17

When red blood cells are worn out, part of their components are recycled while others are disposed. Select the incorrect statement about the destruction of red blood cells
A. The greenish pigment, biliverdin, is recycled to the bone marrow
B. iron is carried to the bone marrow by a protein called transferrin
C. Biliverdin and bilirubin impart color to bile
D. Macrophages in the liver and spleen destroy worn out red blood cells.

A. The greenish pigment, biliverdin, is recycled to the bone marrow.

This is true of pigments.

18

Which dietary components are needed for DNA synthesis, and thus greatly influence the production of red blood cells?

Vitamin B12 and folic acid are vital to DNA synthesis

19

The type of anemia that is fairly common and caused by insufficient dietary iron is
A. Aplastic anemia
B. pernicious anemia
C. Hemolytic anemia
D. Iron deficiency anemia

D. Iron deficiency anemia

Iron is a scarce element in most foods and is commonly deficient. It is necessary for hemoglobin production

20

What type of white blood cell is often first to arrive at the site of infection is a granulocyte and contains granules that stain light purple

Neutrophil

The most numerous and most active granulocyte are the neutrophil

21

Which cell has no nucleus when it is mature

Erythrocytes

The red blood cells gradually lose their nuclei as they leave the bone marrow and are released into the circulation

22

Which of these factors will increase the RBC or RCC
A. Exercise
B. dieting
C. Low body temperature
D. Decreased altitudes

A. Exercise

Periods of exercise, increased body temperature, large meals and high altitudes all can cause an increase in red blood cell count

23

Which one does not belong with the others
A. Heme
B. globin
C. Bilirubin
D. Biliverdin

C. Globin

The term globin refers to the protein in the hemoglobin which can readily be recycled, the heme will be degraded to bilirubin and biliverdin, which are bile pigments, which must be eliminated

24

Which of these is the earliest of this cell line
A. Reticulocyte
B. erythrocyte
C. Erythroblast
D. Hemocytoblast

D. Hemocytoblast

25

Red blood cells live around ? Before they disintegrate

120 day

26

Which organ has a primary role in stimulating blood cell formation

Kidney

27

Which one is not a site of red blood cell production in a fetus
A. Bone marrow
B. kidney
C. Liver
D. Spleen

B. kidney

The liver, spleen and bone marrow manufacture red blood cells in the fetus

28

Which one is a young platelet
A. Progranulocyte
B. basophilic band cell
C. Monoblast
D. Megakaryoblast

D. Megakaryoblast

29

Which did not develop from a myeloblast
A. Basophil
B. monocytes
C. Eosinophils
D. Neutrophil

Monocytes

30

Which one is the least essential for erythrocytes development
A. Vitamin B12
B. vitamin B6
C. Folic acid
D. Gastric intrinsic factor

B. vitamin B6

31

Which white blood cell is the most common

Neutrophil

Neutrophil account for around 54-62% of the white cell count, leukocyte is a general term for any white blood cell

32

Which leukocytes are the largest in the peripheral blood

Monocytes

Although immature cells are usually larger than mature cells, the monocytes is the largest of the circulation peripheral leukocyte

33

Which leukocyte does not have phagocytic properties

Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes function to secrete chemicals like antibodies

34

The condition ? Is evidenced by a DIFF over 10,000 per cubic mm of whole blood
A. Leukemia
B. polycythemia
C. Leukocytosis
D. Leukopenia

C. Leukocytosis

35

Which one is a probable cause of leukocytosis
A. Mumps
B. chicken pox
C. Influenza
D. Appendicitis

D. Appendicitis

Most infections and some inflammation will elevate the white cell count, but there are exceptions such as salmonella poisoning or measles that exhibit lower counts

36

The ability called ? Explains how a white blood cell could be found in the urine
A. Phagocytosis
B. diapedesis
C. Ameboid movement
D. Infection

B. diapedesis

37

The ? Cells are actively involved with allergies

Eosinophils

Eosinophils release chemicals from their granules, such as histamines, that cause the symptoms seen in certain allergic reactions

38

The ? Cells are the usual sources of heparin

B. basophil

The basophil and tissue mast cells are sources of anti-coagulant heparin

39

The ? Cells release antibodies into the circulation

Lymphocytes

The B lymphocytes will respond to a foreign antigen by producing chemical antibodies which are intended to inactivate the invader

40

What is the most common cancerous condition in children
A. Myeloid leukemia
B. lymphoid leukemia
C. Acute lymphoid leukemia
D. Chronic lymphoid leukemia

C. Acute lymphoid leukemia

Acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) can occur at any age but is most common in children

41

Megakaryocytes will differentiate into

Platelets

Platelets or thrombocytes are produced by the fragmentation of stem bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes

42

What is a normal platelet count?

Platelet counts range from 130,000 to 360,000 per cubic mm of blood

43

Which component of whole blood account for clotting

Platelets

44

Which components of whole blood are the source of serotonin which causes smooth muscle cells to contract

Platelets

45

What is the most common component in the plasma?

Water

46

How much of the plasma is protein?

Proteins comprise about 7% of the total plasma volume

47

Which one is the most abundant of the plasma proteins
A. Alpha globulin
B. beta globulin
C. Albumin
D. Fibrinogen

C. Albumin

Albumin is about 3.5-5.5g per 100ml of plasma and is the most common protein

48

What is the most significant factor that helps maintain blood osmotic pressure
A. Electrolytes
B. albumin
C. Fibrinogen
D. Globulins

B. albumin

Although the majority of the osmotic molecules are the electrolytes and proteins, only the proteins are not free to cross capillary membranes and therefore exert a constant osmotic pressure, albumin is the most common blood protein

49

Which molecules are the sources of most antibodies
A. Alpha globulin
B. beta globulin
C. Albumin
D. Gamma globulin

D, gamma globulin

Alpha and beta globulins do produce some antibodies too

50

Which mineral is essential for coagulation to occur

Calcium is a cofactors in several enzymes involved with clotting

51

Which chemical initiates the extrinsic phase of clotting
A. Fibrin
B. fibrinogen
C. Thromboplastin
D. Prothrombin

C. Thromboplastin

Thromboplastin is released from injured cells and complexes with calcium to begin the first clotting cascade reactions

52

Which one is not always present in the blood
A. Prothrombin
B. thrombin
C. Calcium
D. Thromboplastin

B thrombin

Thrombin acts as an enzyme to cleave fibrinogen into active fibrin molecules

53

Which is the last molecule to a appear I'm a clotting reaction
A. Fibrinogen
B. fibrin
C. Thrombin
D. Prothrombin

B. fibrin

Fibrin is the active molecule that forms the network of fibrin threads in the clot that will entrap cells forming a blood clot

54

Which of these can dissolve a blood clot?
A heparin
B. plasminogen
C. Plasmin
D. PDGF

C. Plasmin

Plasminogen is converted to its active form plasmin which dissolves clots

55

Which of these is a pro coagulant?
A. Heparin
B. antithrombin
C. Vitamin K
D. Prostacyclin

C. Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin.

The others are anti coagulants

56

What is the rarest ABO type

AB

57

Who is at risk for developing a fatal Rh incompatibility

The second Rh+ fetus of a Rh- mother

The Rh antibodies are only produced following prior exposure. The Rh- mom won't produce antibodies to her Rh+ fetus unless blood is mixed. Blood is mixed during labor causing mom to produce antibodies and develop a response to any subsequent Rh+ fetuses causing erythroblastosis fetalis

58

Select the incorrect statement about Red blood cells
A. Mature red blood cells lack nuclei
B. red blood cells contain hemoglobin
C. Deoxyhemoglobin is saturated with oxygen
D. Red blood cells lack mitochondria

C. Deoxy means oxygen is removed

59

The largest cells in the blood that leave the bloodstream to become macrophages are the

Monocytes

Monocytes become macrophages and dendritic cells

60

A person with eosinophilia or greater than normal numbers do eosinophils is most likely suffering from

Allergies or internal parasites

Eosinophils increase with allergies and parasites

61

An acute infection would show up Ina blood count as
A. Leukopenia
B. leukocytes is
C. Too few helper T cells
D. Thrombocytopenia

B. leukocytosis

Infection causes increased numbers of leukocytes

62

Which plasma proteins help transport lipids in the bloodstream
A. Albumins
B. alpha and beta globulin
C. Fibrinogen
D. Gamma globulin

B. the alpha and beta globulins form parts of lipoproteins

63

Sedentary people with elevated triglycerides levels who continue to eat fatty foods are likely to have high levels of ? In the their blood streams
A. HDL
B. LDL
C. VLDL
D. Chylomicrons

C. VLDL very low density lipoprotein

Triglycerides aggregate to form VLDL

64

List the correct order the steps of hemostasis

Blood vessel spasm, platelet plug formation than blood coagulation

First vessel response, then cellular response and finally a protein response

65

Which clotting factor is released from damaged tissue, and initiates a chain of clotting events
A. Prothrombin
B. thrombin
F. Fibrin
D. Tissue thromboplastin

D. Tissue thromboplastin

Tissue thromboplastin initiates the extrinsic clotting cascade. The other substances are near the end of the cascade

66

Which blood cell can be described as being a biconcave disc

Erythrocytes

A RBC becomes biconcave when it loses its nucleus

67

Which one dies not belong with the others
A. Erythrocytes
B. serum
C. Leukocyte
D. Platelet

B serum

The others are formed elements and thus the solutes of the blood. Serum is the solvent

68

Which one directly defines the transportation of oxygen
A. Hemoglobin
B. oxyhemoglobin
C. Reduced hemoglobin
D. Red cell count

B. oxyhemoglobin

Oxyhemoglobin is saturated

69

Red blood cells survive around ? Days

120

Due to having no nucleus, a RBC only last about 4 months

70

What is a normal white blood cell count

A normal WBCC is 5 to 10 thousand cells per cubic mm

71

Which of these cell types should not be grouped with the others
A. Neutrophil
B. lymphocytes
C. Eosinophils
D. Basophils

B. Lymphocytes

A lymphocytes is an agranulocyte, the others are granulocytes.

72

Which type of condition is directly related to bone marrow suppression?
A. Aplastic anemia
B. anemia
C. Sickle cell anemia
D. Megaloblastic anemia

A. Aplastic anemia

Aplastic means not producing

73

Pregnancy requires the addition of supplements containing iron to support the increase in vasculature and oxygen demands
T or F

True

The increase in oxygen demand and 30% increase in blood volume require the synthesis Of additional red blood cells

74

It is possible to have anemia even when the erythrocytes count is above normal
T or F

True

Anemia is a functional decrease in the ability of the blood to transport oxygen and may result from decreased numbers or a decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of the hemoglobin, a condition called hypo chromic anemia results from an iron deficiency, although the cell count is normal

75

All leukocytes usually live from 7 to 21 days
T or F

False

Most leukocytes remain alive for up to 3 weeks but T lymphocytes are known to survive up to 10 years

76

Lymphocytes contain lysosomes, which actively decompose bacteria they engulf
T or F

False

Neutrophil and moncytes are the most active phagocytes, lymphocytes do not have the ability to engulf particles but may have lysosomes

77

The red color in inflammation is partially explained by the ability do erythrocytes to secrete histamines
T or F

False

Histamines are released from white blood cells, especial the eosinophils, and cause an increase in capillary permeability

78

Pus contains living as well as dead leukocytes that were summoned to the area by positive chemotaxis
T or F

True

Pus is a collection of leukocytes that have been attracted to the site of infection or inflammation

79

Thrombocytopenia or an increased tendency to bleed is a common consequence of leukemia
T or F

True

One of the causes of death from leukemia is internal hemorrhage caused by a deficiency of platelets caused by the excessive division of leukocytes within a limited area

80

Leukemia cells can be found within the brain or lungs
T or F

True

Although leukemia may originate in the bone marrow, the abnormal cells may be found everywhere as they disseminate through the blood or lymph by metastasis

81

A drop in osmotic pressure with resulting edema can be caused by a poor diet or liver disease
T or F

True

The liver and diet are the two most significant sources of plasma proteins which are significant in preventing loss of fluid from the blood

82

High density lipoproteins have relatively more lipids than proteins
T or F

False

Since lipids are less dense than proteins, high density lipoprotein combinations will have less proteins and more lipids

83

Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic condition which is characterized by high plasma LDL and increased risk of heart attack
T or F

True

In this inherited trait, there is a relative lack of LDL receptors in the liver and cholesterol is carried to other sites by the LDL such as the arteries developing arteriosclerosis

84

Excessive amount of creatinine in the blood could result from muscle or kidney disorders
T or F

True

Creatinine is a waste product of muscle or brain metabolism that is excreted by the kidneys

85

Damage to tissue initiates the intrinsic phase of clotting
T or F

False

The extrinsic phase of clotting is initiated by chemicals released from damaged tissue or blood vessel cells

86

Bleeding is a symptom of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
T or F

True

Disseminated intravascular coagulation is caused by infection or cancer and results in random clot formation which increases the chance for hemorrhage in other areas

87

Serum is the liquid portion of the blood that cannot clot
T or F

True

Serum is the fluid remaining after a clot has formed and does not contain many significant clotting elements

88

Streptokinase and urokinase are used to directly dissolve a thrombus that has moved into the lung
T or F

False

Technically speaking these enzymes can activate plasminogen which then dissolves the clot, a moving clot is properly termed an embolus

89

Person with type A agglutinogen will have anti B agglutinin in their blood also
T or F

True

In the ABO blood type system each person will produce the opposite antibody to the factor they have on their erythrocytes

90

Plasma is about 45% of the total blood volume
T or F

False

In a healthy person the plasma is slightly more than half the total volume of blood

91

Males have more red blood cells than females
T or F

True

Testosterone synergizes with EPO to increase the male RBCC

92

Cyanosis is the blue color of white skin caused by the presence do oxyhemoglobin
T or F

False

Deoxyhemoglobin causes a darker color that appears blue through light skin

93

Sickle cell anemia is identified by the presence of abnormally shaped red blood cells
T or F

False

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic defect in the hemoglobin molecule which will cause the cells to bend and block capillaries under reduced oxygen tension

94

All white blood cells retain their nucleus through out the life of the cell
T or F

True

Only RBC lose their nucleus

95

Monocytes become macrophages as they leave the blood and enter the tissue spaces
T or F

True

Monocytes become macrophages and dendritic cells

96

It is more likely to find the smaller red blood cells in a urine specimen than the larger leukocytes
T or F

False

Leukocytes can enter other body tissues by diapedesis

97

Patients with leukemia often suffer clotting abnormalities and internal bleeding
T or F

True

Leukemia often affects the platelets as well