Flashcards in Chapter 13 Deck (109):
A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland
Biochemical secreted by cells of the thyroid gland that stores thyroid hormones
The System includes the glands that release their secretions directly into the blood stream
Which of the follow glands does not belong to the endocrine system?
Which of the following is not a chemical class of hormones?
No hormone is a carbohydrate by itself
Which of these is not a steroid ?
Cholesterol is the parent steroid
Which factor is a direct cause of rheumatoid Arthritis symptoms?
D. Arachidonic acid
There are several types of prostaglandins which cause inflammation of joints or related structures. Cortisone is used as an anti inflammatory drug
Which of the following is not a property of prostaglandins?
A. Regulate blood pressure
B. effect reproductive functions
C. Influence kidney Na+ movement
D. All of these functions
Prostaglandins are mediators in almost all physiologic functions, normal as well as the abnormal disease alterations
Which of the following is an example of feedback inhibition?
A. Insulin lowers blood sugar
B. GH causes osteoblast division
C. PTH raises blood calcium levels
D. Low blood sugar inhibits insulin
Negative feedback occurs whenever a parameter, such as sugar, causes a hormone to cease or reduce its activity; the other are examples of positive feedback
Releasing hormones are produced by the
D. Adrenal cortex
The releasing hormones are chemical factors that are secreted from the hypothalamus into the pituitary in order to control the release of the pituitary hormones
Which of these hormones controls the ability to produce milk?
PRL or prolactin
Which is not a symptom of hyperthyroidism?
A. Loss of weight
B. protruding eyes
C. Increased heart rate
D. Increased ability to sleep
Thyroxine increases metabolic rate and can cause a state of restlessness, intellectual abilities are actually enhanced
Grave's disease can cause all of these except
B. a positive autoimmune test
C. General edema
D. Intolerance to heat
General edema is a symptom of myxedema or hypothyroidism not Graves' disease. Thyrotoxicosis can cause post-orbital edema and is probably related to autoimmune factors
Which gland is assessed by the use of radioactive iodine?
Thyroid, the thyroxine hormones, T4 and T3 will incorporate the radioactive iodine the same way they would normal iodine, which than can be traced by the radiation counter devices
The Directly antagonizes the effect of calcitonin?
Parathormone or PTH acts to increase blood levels of calcium and bone resorption which is the opposite of calcitonin effects
What is the most active form of vitamin D?
Dehydroxycholecalciferol, vitamin D originates from the steroid cholesterol which will undergo several conversions before becoming active (D3).
What is the final factor in the synthesis of the active form of vitamin D?
A. Kidney function
B. the diet
C. Intestinal conversion
D. Sunlight on the skin
Kidney function, cholesterol conversion progresses from the skin to the insestines and finally reaches completion in the hormonally vitamin D3
The Gland is important for producing immunity
The thymus gland produces thymosin and other factors which account for the activity of the T cell lymphocytes
Which gland produces a hormone, which stimulate the production of blood cells?
Kidney, it secretes erythropoietin which stimulates blood cell formation in periods do need or stress
In the general stress syndrome, all of the following are increased except...
A. Blood sugar
B. heart rate
C. Blood pressure
Digestion, stress tends to increase sympathetic nervous arousal which is antagonistic to normal digestion mad which could result in stomach ulcers or other gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea
Choose the statement about steroid hormones that is incorrect
A. Steroids are lipids with complex ring structures
B. steroids can pass thru their target cell membrane and interact with receptors in the nucleus
C. Steroid employ first and second messengers that amplify the cellular response
D. Estrogen and testosterone are examples of steroid hormones
C. Steroids cause gene expression. Non steroids use 2nd messengers
Prostaglandins are. Substances that regulate neighboring cells
B. local signals are called paracrine
Which is the precursor that will result in the synthesis of the others?
C. Vitamin D
B. all of the steroids including vitamin D are in equilibrium with their dietary precursor cholesterol, cholesterol by itself is not considered a hormone
Which of the following does not belong with the others?
C. Cortisone is a steroid and adrenalin (epinephrine) derivatives are amines.
Which one is not produced by the anterior pituitary?
B. follicle-stimulating hormone
C. Somatostatin is a growth hormone made by the hypothalamus, somatotropin is another name for anterior pituitary growth hormone
Which one is not a pancreatic hormone?
B. aldosterone is a steroid produced by the adrenal cortices
Which one is produced first?
B. protein kinases
C. Adenylate cyclase
C. Adenylate cyclase is the enzyme caused to be produced by the hormone, this enzyme than catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic adenosine monophosphate which then stimulates various enzymes called kinases which alter proteins
Which one inactivates and decreases the levels of cAMP?
A. Adenylate cyclase
C. ATP conversion to ADP
D. Protein kinases
B. phosphodiesterase is an enzyme which inactivates cAMP almost as soon as it is formed, this is one mechanism that accounts for the cyclic timing of hormone mediated reactions
Which one does not employ cAMP second messengers?
A. Cortisol is a steroid hormone that functions by way of DNA and genetic mechanisms
Which one is not a hormone function?
A. Increase cellular oxygen consumption
B. cause osteoblasts to divide
C. Convert fibroblasts to osteoblasts
D. Alter genetic expression
C. Hormones usually do not play a major direct role in causing one cell type to convert to another, function such as bone development are influenced by hormones as well as many other complex dietary and genetic factors
Prostaglandins are. That affect various functions.
D. Although proteins are the usual functional molecules in biochemistry, there are lipids such as steroids and prostaglandins that have powerful effects on cell activities
The precursor molecule that produces all of the prostaglandins is?
D. Arachidonic acid
D. Arachidonic acid is the lipid that is converted into the prostaglandins, arachidonic acid is one of the metabolically significant fatty acids
What are releasing hormones from the hypothalamus secreted into?
A. Posterior pituitary
C. Hypophyseal portal vein
D. Anterior pituitary arteries
C. The hypophyseal portal vein is a direct connection or shunt between the hypothalamus and the anterior lobe of the pituitary
Which part of the endocrine system has the major influence over other endocrine organs?
A. Posterior pituitary
B. thyroid gland
D. Ovary and testis
C. Hypothalamus controls the pituitary together they affect more areas in the body than any other endocrine gland
Which one is an incorrect association ?
A. Somatotropes GH
B. thyrotropes, thyroxine
C. Mammatropes, PRL
D. Gonadotropes, GnRH
B.the thyrotropes ares cells within the anterior pituitary that secretes TSH which causes the thyroid to secrete thyroxine
Which one directly stimulates mitosis?
D. Growth hormone releasing hormone
B. somatotropin or STH or GH causes increase in the size of the body by stimulating cell division and anabolic reactions, GRH causes GH release
Which one decreases the release of growth hormone?
A. High protein diet
C. Low SS levels
D. Poor nutrition
A. High levels of protein in the blood can inhibit GH by a negative feedback mechanism, low protein levels will actually increase the release of GH
The cartilage of bones is stimulated by...
C. Insulin like growth factor 1
C. Insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF 1) is a mediator secreted by the liver in response to GH, IGF 1 is needed to stimulate cartilage growth
The condition Occurs in adulthood and is evidenced by thickened skull bones and distortions in the arms and hands
D. Because of closure of the bone epiphysis, excess GH cannot result in giantism. Excess GH in adult will cause deformities
Which one causes sterility in a male?
B. prolactin (PRL) can cause decrease in LH or ICSH levels which in turn result in lower levels of testosterone
The hormone. Causes the breast to increase its synthesis of milk.
A. Prolactin (PRL) stimulates the secretion of milk, PRL is stimulated by PRF (PRH) and inhibited by prolactin release inhibiting factor (hormone).
Which one is not produced by the anterior pituitary?
D. GnRH is gonadotropin releasing hormone produced by the hypothalamus
Oxytocin is most closely related chemically to...
A. Antidiuretic hormone
C. Follicle stimulating hormone
D. Luteinizing hormone
A. Both hormones are peptides comprised of 9 amino acids, ADH contains phenylalanine and arginine in place of the isoleucine and leucine in oxytocin
ADH has the ability to increase blood pressure by constricting blood vessels and is therefore also called
B. vasopressin is another name for ADH and acts as a vasoconstrictor as well as a water retaining hormone
Which hormone plays the greatest role in the contractions that occur in the uterus during labor?
C. oxytocin has a powerful effect on smooth muscle contractions and is sometimes given to induce labor, prostaglandins also constrict uterine muscles
Which one is most closely involved with ovulation?
B. luteinizing hormone causes the follicle to release its egg cell in ovulation, FSH is more important in the early development of the follicles
The ovary and. Contain spherical collections of cells referred to as follicles.
C. The thyroid follicles produce the glycoprotein aggregates called colloid which will result in thyroxine synthesis
Which hormone exerts the greatest influence on metabolism?
A. Thyroxine, T4, and triiodothyronine T3, increase the metabolic rates of most cells
Which one does not belong with the others
A. The thyroxine molecule requires iodine and the amino acid tyrosine as parts of its structure
Which is not true of thyroxine?
A. Needed for normal mental growth
B. increases carbohydrate utilization
C. Decreases lipid synthesis
D. Decreases protein synthesis
D. Thyroxine increases the breakdown of lipids but promotes protein synthesis, glucose oxidation is enhanced
Which one has the most potent effect on increasing metabolic rate?
D. Alpha globulin
C. T3 is 5x more potent than T4, thyroglobulin is a storage form of the thyroxine hormones which are transported in the blood in an active form by alph globulin proteins
Which one is not consistent with a diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism?
B. weakened bones
C. Muscle cramps
D. Increased blood calcium
C. Muscle cramping is usually the result of a deficiency of PTH or parathyroidism in which blood calcium levels are suppressed
Osteoporosis most likely results from...
A. A deficiency of dietary calcium
B. increased calcitonin levels
C. Increased PTH secretion
D. Osteitis fibrosa
C. Excesses in PTH will stimulate the osteoclasts to dissolve bone calcium salts. Osteitis fibrosa is a condition of fibrous deposition in the cavities left by the resorption do calcium in osteoporosis
Which one is the last step in the sequence of hormone synthesis in the adrenal medulla?
C. The medulla amines are derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, the adrenalin compounds are therefore related closely and easily inter-converted.
Which one is not true of aldosterone?
A. Secreted from the zona glomerulosa
B. decreases blood Na+ levels
C. Stimulated by angiotensin II
D. Raises blood volum
B. aldosterone conserves sodium in exchange for potassium and has a potent effect on blood volume
Which one is a factor that initiates the other steps?
B. angiotensin I
C. Angiotensin - converting enzyme
A. Renin is released from the juxta-glomerular cells of the kidney and converts a blood protein angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
Which one is not true of cortisol?
A. Stimulates gluconeogensis
B. decreases blood glucose
C. Decreases protein synthesis
D. Stimulated by ACTH
B. cortisol has a general effect of increasing blood sugar levels by affecting the liver and various other tissues.
Which ont does not relate to Cushing syndrome?
A. Moon face and buffalo hump
B. under secretion of ACTH
C. Over secretion of ACTH
B. Cushing's syndrome patients sometimes have characteristic fat depositions in the face and posterior lumbar area along with hypertension and high blood sugar
Which one is not true of insulin?
A. Can cause hypoglycemia
B. can cause hyperglycemia
C. Produced by the islets of langerhans
D. Antagonized by glucogen
B. insulin helps prevent hyperglycemia.
In NIDDM the patient is usually over 40 and has normal levels of
C. Blood lipids
A. Insulin NIDDM is type 2 or non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Melatonin is secreted from what gland?
B. melatonin from the pineal gland in the brain is derived from serotonin and affects female reproductive cycles
Cyclic AMP functions as a(n) ? For ? Hormones?
A. Binding site, nonsteriod
B. membrane receptor, steroid
C. Activity site, G protein
D. Second messenger, nonsteriod
D. cAMP is a second messenger for nonsteriod hormones that can not enter the cell
Which one is not a method the body uses to regulate its hormone release?
A. Negative feedback
B. direct nervous stimulation
C. Release of tropic hormones
D. Degradation of the endocrine gland
D. That would cause a permanent change
Where are the posterior pituitary hormones made?
A. In neurosecretory cells that originate in the hypothalamus
B. in the posterior pituitary
C. In the anterior pituitary
D. In the brain stem
A. Posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and travel through the infudibulum along axons to their release points
Which one of these anterior pituitary hormones show increased secretion in response to stree?
A. Thyroid stimulating hormone
B. adrenocorticotropic hormone
C. Luteinizing hormone
B. stress causes CRH, ACTH and cortisol to begin a positive feedback loop
Drinking alcohic beverages on a hot days is not safe because alcohol inhibits the release of ? Which normally helps to conserve water during dehydration?
A. Antidiuretic hormone
A. Normally ADH prevents dehydration
Hypothyroidism in infants can result in?
A. Graves' disease
C. Hashimoto's disease
B. low thyroid hormones lead to stunted growth and retardation.
Sex hormones are secreted by
A. All endocrine tissues of the body
B. the inner cortex of the adrenal gland
C. The inner cortex of the adrenal glands and the gonads
D. The gonads
C. The zona reticular is and the gonads can produce sex hormones
In the pancreas, ? Cells secrete insulin, which ? Blood levels of glucose.
B. alpha, lowers
C. Beta, raises
D. Beta, lowers
D. Beta cells produce insulin. Insulin caus glucose to enter cells, lowering the blood levels of glucose
What seems to be the cause of juvenile-onset or insulin -dependent mellitus IDDM ?
A. The receptors on the target cells become no longer responsive to insulin
B. immune cells attack the pancreas than can then no longer produce insulin
C. The individual consumes to much sugar, which causes an overload in the blood stream
D. Obesity seems to be the most common cause of IDDM
B. type I diabetes is characterized by the inability to manufacture insulin due to the destruction of the islets
The endocrine gland responsible for the body's circadian rhythm is the ? Gland
B. melatonin from the pineal gland regulates the biological clock
Which one is not an endocrine property?
A. Hormones reach targets through the blood
B. effects are slow and cyclic
C. Rapid acting effects
D. Effects caused by chemicals
C. Rapid effects are produced by the nervous system
Which one does not belong with the others?
C. Amino acid
D. All the others are non-steroids
In the second messenger theory, which is the first messenger?
B. the hormone is the original message outside the cell, which causes an alteration in the concentration of the second message inside the cell
Which one is not an endocrine gland?
C. Salivary gland
C. Salivary glands release enzymes not hormones
Which is not a function of the hypothalamus?
A. Affects heart rate
B. controls temperature
C. Affects water balance
D. Secretes FSH
D. FSH is a gonadotrope secreted by the anterior pituitary
Which one is released into the blood from the posterior pituitary?
D. Oxytocin and ADH are posterior pituitary hormones
The hormone? Causes the contractions of labor?
C. Oxytocin release is most active during labor
Which one causes excessive skeletal growth or giantism?
A. Somatotropin or growth hormone can cause excessive growth of the bones and muscles
Non-steroid hormones are called second messengers because they influence the binding site first and the activity site second
T or F
F. The second messenger is usually cAMP that is stimulated by the non steroid hormones that complex with the binding sites on the cell membranes
Various proteins kinases are enzymes that stimulate cells to increase their metabolic activities.
T or F
T. In the second messenger theory, hormones can increase the metabolic rates and functions of cells by causing cAMP to eventually result in the activation of kinase enzymes that will alter the structure and functions of proteins
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate is an enzyme which causes the target effect seen with some hormones.
T or F
False. cGMP is similar or cAMP and functions as a second messenger with some hormones, cGMP is also a nucleotide
Prostaglandins are considered hormones, which are stored with in cells and released on demand. T or F
False. Prostaglandins are sometimes not considered true hormones and they are not stored within cells, since they influence cAMP production, they can be considered hormone mediators
Prostaglandins are known to cause smooth muscles of the uterus or intestines to contract. T or F
True. Prostaglandins are the mediators that can cause premenstrual cramping or cramping associated with intestinal colitis.
The levels of insulin in the blood are maintained at a constant, stable, homeostatic level.
T or F
False. The physiologic parameters such as blood glucose are maintained by negative feedback mechanisms involving several hormones, hormones such as insulin are not maintained but produced by demand
The pituitary and adrenal gland can be controlled by the direct influence of the nervousness system.
T or F
True. The posterior pituitary is directly controlled by the hypothalamus of the brain and the adrenal medulla responds to sympathetic nervous system stimulation.
The pituitary is located with in the sella turcica of the ethmoid bone, and it is attached to the thalamus by the infundibulum.
T or F
False, the pituitary is located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and is attached to the hypothalamus by its stalk the infundibulum.
As blood levels of thyroid hormones increase, the secretions of TRH and TSH are reduced.
T or F
T. Thyroid hormones such as thyroxine reduce the secretion of thyroid releasing hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone.
Alcohol is known to be a potent anti-antidiuretic.
T or F
True. Ethyl alcohol causes an inhibition do ADH production and consequent increase in urine output.
The hypothalamus of the brain has osmoreceptors, which are sensitive to changes in blood concentrations.
T or F
True. The osmoreceptors respond to increases in concentration by increasing the release of ADH which will retain water in an attempt to dilute and return the concentration pressure to normal.
Diabetes insipidus is a condition that results in edema and swelling because of an excess of ADH.
T or F
False. Diabetes insipidus usually results in a drastic reduction in ADH production with a consequent increase in urine output and dehydration.
Cretinism is a condition of physical and mental retardation that is the result of a deficiency of thyroxine.
T or F
True. Deficiency of the thyroid hormones in the newborn or pregnant mother will result in a diminished ability to thrive and develop.
It is possible to have high levels of TSH but a decrease in the levels of thyroxine
True. Normally thyroxine will inhibit the production of TSH by the negative feedback, but in simple or endemic goiter, iodine and thyroxine are lacking
Thyroxine production can be increased by TSH or antibodies.
T or F
True. In Graves' disease, autoantibodies are produced that bind to thyroid receptors and mimic the effects of TSH
A pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal cortex which raises blood pressure. T or F.
False. The pheochromocytoma is an adrenal medulla tumor that produces catecholamine transmitters that mimic the effect of the sympathetic nervous system
Male sex hormones can be produced by the testes or adrenal glands.
T of F
True. Androgens such as testosterone are synthesized in the testes and adrenal cortices of both sexes.
Cortisone can either cause or inhibit inflammation.
T or F
True. Cortisone can cause inflammation at low physiologic levels and block inflammation when the dose levels are high or therapeutic, recall that inflammation is a normal defense mechanism
The pancreas is an endocrine and exocrine gland that secretes insulin from the alpha cells.
T of F
False the pancreas has a digestive exocrine function and also produces insulin from its beta cells
Cancer cells can produce hormones that affect blood sugar and blood calcium levels.
T of F
True. Cancer cells can secrete an insulin like substance, PTH, ACTH or ADH.
The cells that are stimulated by hormones are referred to as its receptors.
T or F
False. Hormones bind to areas on cells called receptors and the cells are referred to as specific hormone targets
An organ can belong to the digestive and endocrine systems simultaneously.
T or f
True. There are areas in the digestive and other systems that secrete hormones and therefore endocrine in nature, gastrin is a hormone secreted by the stomach.
Circadian rhythms are those that involve fluctuations that usually last several days. T or F
False. Circadian cycles are biorhythms that repeat every 24 hours or have day or night fluctuations such as the sleep wake cycle.
It is possible to find all the hormones in a blood sample taken from the arm.
T or F
True. Hormones travel in the blood and can be found in any blood sample
Steroid exert their effects by increasing the amount of cAMP in the target cell. T or F
False. Steroids do not employ the cAMP second messenger system
Hormones do not stimulate all cell types with equal probability.
T or F
True. Hormones only stimulate their target cells.
All hormones secreted by the pituitary actually came from the hypothalamus. T or F
False. Only posterior pituitary hormones come from the hypothalamus
Diabetes insipidus results from an excess production of ADH
T or F
False. Diabetes insipidus results from an insufficient production of ADH