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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (100):

Which of the following does not belong to e others?
A. Lignin
B. cellulose
C. Glycogen
D. Pectin

C. Glycogen

All of these are complex carbohydrates, but glycogen is produced by animal sources and is the only one of these that is digestible by humans


Which one is most commonly oxidized for energy?
A. Fructose
B. glucose
C. Galactose
D. Sucrose

B. glucose


Which one is not utilized for energy?
A. Glucose
B. glycogen
C. Ribose
D. Galactose

C. Ribose


Which tissue cannot store glycogen or lipids for energy
A. Nervous
B. skeletal muscle
C. Liver
D. Cardiac

A. Nervous

Nervous tissue, especially in the brain, cannot store carbohydrates and must receive a constant supply of glucose


Which one is not a protein derivative?
A. Collagen
B. keratin
C. Hemoglobin
D. Cortisol

D. Cortisol


Nutritional edema will develop in a ? Deficiency.
A. Protein
B. carbohydrate
C. Lipid
D. Electrolyte

A. Protein

Nutritional edema refers to the increase in tissue fluids due to the lower blood osmotic pressure caused by blood protein deficiencies, proteins are active osmotic molecules which remain within capillaries


How many calories are needed to raise 10 grams of water from 27 to 37 degrees Celsius

100 cal

The calorie (cal) is the amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius


Which food would yield the greatest number of calories
A. 10 grams steak
B. 10 grams bread
C. 10 grams cheese
D. 15 gram rice

C. 10 gram cheese

Theoretically, fats yield 9.5 calories per gram while carbohydrate and protein each yield 4.1 calories in each gram. Therefore 10 grams of cheese would have the greates amount of fat calories


Which one would be most accurate in the assessment of a basal metabolic rate
A. Oxygen consumption
B. total calories consumed
C. Total calories burned
D. Blood pressure

A. Oxygen consumption

Since most energy reactions use oxygen and convert it to water, the consumption of oxygen would closely correlate with the total amount of energy being produced


Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that can be used to synthesize the vitamin ? In human cells
A. Riboflavin
B. niacin
C. Cyanocobalamin
D. Folic acid

B. niacin

Niacin or nicotinic acid is found in plants and niacinamide is the animal form, humans can synthesize niacin from tryptophan


Coenzymes I and II have ? As part of their structures
A. Folic acid
B. pantothenate
C. Niacin
D. Riboflavin

C. Niacin

Niacin is part of NAD, coenzyme I or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and NADP or coenzyme II


Which one is a niacin defiency
A. Beriberi
B. rickets
C, pellagra
D. Megaloblastic anemia

C. Pellagra

Pellagra is a deficiency resulting in skin, digestive and neurological impairments

Beriberi results from thiamine deficiency


Pyridoxine is a chemical name for vitamin


B6 is called pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine


Acetyl coenzyme A has ? In its structure
A. Flavoprotein
B. folic acid
C. Niacin
D. Pantothenic acid

D. Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid is absolutely essential because it is part of acetyl-coenzyme-A which enters the citric acid or Kreb's cycle


Pernicious anemia will develop in the absence of intrinsic factor or vitamin ?


Cyan cobalamin is essential for the production of red blood cells, its absorption is gastric intrinsic factor


Choose the carbohydrate that is not a monosaccharide absorbed from the digestive tract
A. Fructose
B. maltose
C. Galactose
D. Glucose

B. maltose

Maltose is a disaccharide


Which cells of the body, under normal circumstances, must have energy in the form of glucose in order to survive
A. Skin cells
B. muscle cells
C. Neurons
D. Cells of the liver

C. Neurons

Neurons do not possess the enzymes necessary to process sources of energy


How does the body make use of dietary cholesterol?

It is used for structural material in cell membranes

Cholesterol is a vital portion of the cell membrane


The American heart association recommends that dietary fat should constitute no more than ? Of daily caloric intake


Daily input of fats should not exceed 30% of total calories


Which is not one of the ways the body uses dietary protein
A. To help regulate osmotic balance of the blood
B. as an energy source
C. For building and repairing tissue
D. To synthesize bile

D. To synthesize bile


In order to prevent protein loss, an adult must consume at least ? Grams of carbohydrate daily.


Estimates are around 100-125 gms of carbohydrates are required daily to prevent protein breakdown, amounts over 300 are probably excessive and can be converted to fats


Which of the following is most likely used for energy?
A. Cholesterol
B. triglycerides
C. Phospholipid
D. Fats

B. triglycerides

Of the lipids, the triglycerides are normally used for energy, cholesterol is the precursor for steroid hormones, and along with phospholipids, is never burnt for energy


Which one can be synthesized by the liver
A. Cholesterol
B. linolenic acid
C. Arachidonic aid
D. Linolenic acid

A. Cholesterol

Certain fatty acids such as linoleic acid cannot be synthesized in the liver and are called Essen because they must be supplied in the diet, the liver plays an active role in cholesterol biosynthesis


A diet that is ? % fat is considered healthy

Under 30%

The am heart association recommends less than 30% fat to reduce the risk of coronary disease, along with a preference of unsaturated over saturated fats


Which one is the usual precursor to the others
A. Cholesterol
B. lipoprotein
C. Phospholipids
D. Triglycerides

D. Triglycerides

Triglycerides provide the fatty acids and glycerol that can be used in the synthesis of other lipids


There are ? Essential amino acids that must be included in the diet of a child


There are 8 essential adult amino acids required for adults (some say 9)' and 10 for children, there are 20 amino acids that are used to build human proteins.


Which is not an essential adult amino acid
A. Methionine
B. phenylalanine
C. Isoleucine
D. Alanine

D. Alanine


Arginine and ? Are additional amino acids that must be provided to children
A. Glutamine
B. glycine
C. Histidine
D. Cysteine

C. Histidine

There are two additional amino acids that must be supplied to growing children because their livers have not yet attained the capability to manufacture them on demand, arginine and histidine


Which one is an incomplete protein source
A. Fish
B. corn
C. Poultry
D. Milk

B. corn

Milk and fish are excellent sources of complete proteins, foods such as corn are incomplete because the zein (a prolamine protein) in them lacks tryptophan and lysine.


Which one of these functions is the least important for proteins?
A. Become blood osmotic proteins
B. convert to enzymes
C. Utilization of energy
D. Component of structure

B. utilization of energy

Blood albumin and other proteins are critical in maintaining osmotic pressure


The average basal metabolic rate requires one calorie of energy per hour for each ? Of body weight


Although body requirements vary greatly among the variables of age, sex, lifestyle and hormone levels, 1 calorie per kilogram per hour is a reasonable estimate


Which one does not tend to decrease basal metabolic rates?
A. Being female
B. larger individual
C. Body temperature of 97degrees F
D. Thyroxine levels

D. Thyroxine levels

Most females have higher metabolic rates


Which has the highest caloric usage per hour?
A. Jogging
B. walking up stairs
C. Vigorous exercise
D. Swimming

B. walking up stairs


The desirable weight for a 26 year old female who is 5feet and a medium frame is around ? Pounds



Persons are considered obese if their weight is ? Over the desired weight


The criterion for obesity is over 20% in excess of desired weight, overweight has the criteria of 10-20% over the weight


Which of the following is a water soluble vitamin
A. A
B. B
C. D
D. E

B vitamins


Which one does not contain vitamin A
A. Carrots
B. fish
C. Milk
D. Liver

A. Carrots

Vitamin A is converted into compounds necessary for vision such as the retinol pigment rhodopsin or visual purple


What causes vitamin A destruction?


Vitamin A is relatively stable under varying pH changes and food preparation but is unstable under sunlight and oxidizing conditions.


What is the most active form of vitamin D
A. Dihydroxycholecalciferol
B. cholecalciferol
C. Hydroxycholecalciferol
D. Ergocalciferol

A. Dehydroxycholecalciferol

Vitamin D is derived from cholecalciferol in the diet which is converted through a series of reactions into this active form


Which is the best source of vitamin D
A. Natural cow's milk
B. enriched milk
C. Fortified milk
D. Vegetables

C. Fortified milk

To fortify means to add nutrient, enriched means to partially replace a nutrient lost in processing, and steroids are only animal compounds


Vitamin D deficiency could result in poor

Bone growth

Since vitamin D is needed to allow calcium mobilization, the most obvious disease might be rickets or soft deformed bones


What vitamin is a potent anti oxidizing agent

Vitamin e


The most important vitamin which promotes normal blood clotting is vitamin

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is needed to synthesize the prothrombin by the liver needed for blood clotting


A rich source of vitamin K is


Leafy green vegetables are the best sources of vitamin K


Which one is not a B complex vitamin
A. Niacin
B. riboflavin
C. Cyanocobalamin
D. Phylloquione

D. Phylloquinone

Phylloquinone is vitamin K1


What is the most important vitamin for carbohydrate metabolism

B-complex vitamins

The most significant enzyme co-factors that are required for oxidation and energy production are found in the B vitamins


Cocarboxylase is an enzyme that utilizes the vitamin ? As part of its structure
A. Thiamin
B. niacin
C. Riboflavin
D. Folic acid

A thiamin

All enzymes require a vitamin as part of their coenzyme activators, thiamine is needed to oxidize carbohydrate


Alcoholics are particularly susceptible to develop a ? Deficiency
A. Vitamin D
B. vitamin E
C. Thiamin
D. Riboflavin

C. Thiamin

Since thiamin is neede to oxidize alcohol, alcoholics require more than the average amounts of thiamin


Vitamin C is necessary for the synthesis of


Vitamin C, ascorbic acid, is required for the production of the collagen fibers in skin, bone and other tissues


Vitamin C is closely related to ? In structure


Vitamins are distinct and do not belong to any typical chemical group, but ascorbic acid is remarkably similar to glucose but does not arise from it apparently


The most abundant minerals in the body are calcium


Because of their presence in bone and other tissue, calcium phosphate slats comprise about 75% of the minerals in the body.


Phosphate is important for which of the following
A. Bone matrix
B. ATP and energy reactions
C. DNA and RNA
D. All of these

D. All of these

Nucleic acids must have phosphates in them


Methionine and cysteine are unique amino acids because they contain the element


All amino acid contain C, H, O, and N but only two also contain sulfur, methionine and cysteine


The most abundant extracellular cation, conserved by aldosterone is


Of the positive ions, sodium is pumped out of cells by the sodium-potassium pump, blood levels are maintained by the action of aldosterone on the kidneys


Which ion is most important in oxygen transport


Iron is the nucleus of the hemoglobin pigment in red blood cells that bind to oxygen


The trace mineral ? Is essential for hemoglobin and neurological functions


Copper is required for red blood cell functioning, bone, melanin, and nerve functions although it is required in only small amounts


Nutrients that the body needs but can not synthesize on its own are called

Essential nutrients


Which one of theses carbohydrates is not a good source of energy for human?
A. Beet sugar
B. molasses
C. Cellulose
D. Fruits

C cellulose

Human do not possess the correct enzymes to break down cellulose


The basal metabolic rate (BMR) measures the rate of energy expenditure when

The body is awake but resting

The BMR is the amount of energy required to keep the awake body alive


Which vitamin is fat-soluble and has carotene as its precursor

Vitamin A

Beta carotene is a precursor to vitamin a


Intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of which vitamin

Vitamin B-12

With out intrinsic factor a deficiency in vitamin B-12 leads to pernicious anemia


Neural tube defects are easily prevented by the adequate intake of ? By the pregnant mother


Folacin or folic acid is necessary for proper neural development


Which major mineral makes a major contribution to the solution concentration of extracellular fluids?


Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation


The trace element ? Is necessary for wound healing, and a deficiency of it results in depressed immunity


Leukocytes need zinc to properly function


What term is used to describe the synthesis of a cellular protien



Which one is a disaccharide
A. Lactose
B. glucose
C. Fructose
D. Galactose

A lactose

Lactose is glucose and galactose hooked together


The carbohydrate ? Is critical for the function of genes


Deoxyribose is the sugar of DNA


What carbohydrate can be found in steak


Steak is animal muscle, and thus contains abundant animal polysaccharides or glycogen


An essential compound not readily synthesized in the liver

Linoleic acid

Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid


A diet that contains ? Will have sufficient amino acids

Rice and beans

Rice and bean combined contain all essential amino acids


How many calories are produced from 10g carbohydrate, 5g fat and 2g protein


4.4 x 10 carbs (44) + 4.4 x 2 protein (9) + 9.5 x5 fat (47) =100


Which one influence basal metabolic rate to the greatest extent
A. Thyroid hormone
B.a high fat diet
C. More than 3,000 calorie diet
D. Cigarette smoking

A.thyroid hormone

Thyroid hormones exert a direct affect on the metabolism of most body cells


Which one is the hormonally active form of vitamin D?
A. Ergocalciferol
B. dihydroxycholecalciferol
C. Cholecalciferol
D. Vitamin D -

B. dihydroxycholecalciferol

Dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol acts in the small intestine


Hemorrhage could occur because of lack of sufficient vitamin


Vitamin K is necessary for the production of clotting proteins


The most essential vitamin required to allow carbon to enter the citric acid cycle is

Pantothenaic acid

With out pantothenic acid, acetic acic can not enter the citric acid


A deficiency of carbohydrate in the diet can cause muscle tissue to degenerate
T or F


A lack of adequate carbohydrate in the diet will cause the liver and skeletal muscles to break down their proteins and convert structures such as muscle proteins into glucose


Infants have a higher probability of developing lipid deficiencies than adults
T or F


Nutritionists recommend that 3% of the energy intake in the infant formula be the form of the essential linoleic fatty acid, recall that the liver in an infant is immature and does not have the capabilities to synthesize all needed compounds


Complete proteins are those that contain all the amino acids required for an adult in the diet.
T or F


Complete protiens contain the eight essential amino acids but not all 20 that are used by humans


A child usually develops a positive nitrogen balance in comparison to an adult
T or F


A positive nitrogen balance occurs whenever the body uses protiens to build tissues in excess of the amount that is oxidized or lost, children have anabolic rates that exceed catabolic


Kwashiorkor is characterized by edema and retardation
T or F


Protien deficiencies lead to the mental retardation and bloated bellies or as cites seen in undeveloped countries


The average adult requires 1,000 calories per hour per Kg body weight each day in the diet
T or F


Adults require around 1,500 kcal or 1,500,000 calories each day


A bomb calorimeter is used to determine how many calories a person will obtain from their food
T or F


The food in a bomb calorimeter is burned completely to determine to the total calories in a food sample, foods are never completely oxidized in metabolism, therefore these values are actually higher than normal physiologic values


The basal metabolic rate is the average energy consumed by a person each day
T or F


The BMR is the minimal energy expenditure assessed at rest following a fast


Shivering during the cold is a result of the lower metabolic rate of the body in response to lower temperature

T or F


The greatest source of heat is from skeletal muscle contraction, which is brought about by the hypothalamus in response to temperature receptors


A gain in weight will occur when a person has a positive energy balance
T or F


A positive energy balance occurs when the intake of calories exceeds the output, the excess nutrients are converted to fats stored in tissues such as liver and adipose


Studies have shown that persons who were over their desired weights by as much as 10 pounds actually live longer
T or F


Current research has indicated that in reality people live longer when their weights are slightly higher than those found in desired weight tables


All persons who weigh 30% in excess of their body weight are considered obese
T or F


They are obese if the excess is due to body adipose but not obese if the excess is due to muscle hypertrophy such as in athletes


A person could lose weight during exercise and still be considered obese even if their weight was normal
T or F


Some forms of diet and exercise accomplish a weight reduction from loss of body water, since the amount of adipose remains the same the person quickly returns to the original obese condition


A person with a deficient fat intake may develop vitamin E deficiency also
T or F


Since certain vitamins such as E are fat soluble, it is possible to have a deficiency either by diet or low body fat


Degenerate skin changes could be the result of either hypervitaminosis A or deficiency
T or F


Vitamins, especially the fat soluble, must be obtained optimal levels, maximal and minimal amounts will cause physiologic alterations


Infants may develop a fatal hemorrhagic disease because of their deficiency of intestinal bacteria
T or F


Intestinal organisms produce vitamin K which is needed to clot properly, all infants are sterile and must be given a supplement


Deficiencies of folacin lead to megalobastic anemia

T or F


Abnormally large and defective red blood cells Amy result from folic acid (folacin, folinic acid) deficiency


Biotin is most significant in promoting carbohydrate metabolic pathways
T or F


Biotin is most important in the reactions of amino acids, fatty acids and nucleic acids


Scurvy develops from Vitamin C deficiency
T or F


Scurvy causes bone, joint, and tooth abnormalities that manifest as bleeding gums and painful joints


Potassium is critically important for nerve and muscle conductivity and must be maintained at high blood levels
T or G


Potassium is found in highest concentration within cells because of the activity of the sodium potassium membrane pump


Anorexia is a term that means loss of appetite
T or F


Anorexia means loss of appetite and the major symptom of the psychological condition called anorexia nervosa which has many causes


Beef and codfish are a source of complex carbohydrates
T or F


Skeletal muscle stores the complex carbohydrate glycogen which is a polymer of glucose


Excess protein in the diet can cause obesity
T or F


Amino acids can be turned into lipids


Excess proteins in the diet usually cause a state of nutritional edema
T or F


Deficiency of protein cause nutritional edema


Vegetables are a good source of the vitamin A required for vision
T or F


Retinol ( the proper form of vitamin A) only comes from animal sources