Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (100):
1

Which of the following does not belong to e others?
A. Lignin
B. cellulose
C. Glycogen
D. Pectin

C. Glycogen

All of these are complex carbohydrates, but glycogen is produced by animal sources and is the only one of these that is digestible by humans

2

Which one is most commonly oxidized for energy?
A. Fructose
B. glucose
C. Galactose
D. Sucrose

B. glucose

3

Which one is not utilized for energy?
A. Glucose
B. glycogen
C. Ribose
D. Galactose

C. Ribose

4

Which tissue cannot store glycogen or lipids for energy
A. Nervous
B. skeletal muscle
C. Liver
D. Cardiac

A. Nervous

Nervous tissue, especially in the brain, cannot store carbohydrates and must receive a constant supply of glucose

5

Which one is not a protein derivative?
A. Collagen
B. keratin
C. Hemoglobin
D. Cortisol

D. Cortisol

6

Nutritional edema will develop in a ? Deficiency.
A. Protein
B. carbohydrate
C. Lipid
D. Electrolyte

A. Protein

Nutritional edema refers to the increase in tissue fluids due to the lower blood osmotic pressure caused by blood protein deficiencies, proteins are active osmotic molecules which remain within capillaries

7

How many calories are needed to raise 10 grams of water from 27 to 37 degrees Celsius

100 cal

The calorie (cal) is the amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius

8

Which food would yield the greatest number of calories
A. 10 grams steak
B. 10 grams bread
C. 10 grams cheese
D. 15 gram rice

C. 10 gram cheese

Theoretically, fats yield 9.5 calories per gram while carbohydrate and protein each yield 4.1 calories in each gram. Therefore 10 grams of cheese would have the greates amount of fat calories

9

Which one would be most accurate in the assessment of a basal metabolic rate
A. Oxygen consumption
B. total calories consumed
C. Total calories burned
D. Blood pressure

A. Oxygen consumption

Since most energy reactions use oxygen and convert it to water, the consumption of oxygen would closely correlate with the total amount of energy being produced

10

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that can be used to synthesize the vitamin ? In human cells
A. Riboflavin
B. niacin
C. Cyanocobalamin
D. Folic acid

B. niacin

Niacin or nicotinic acid is found in plants and niacinamide is the animal form, humans can synthesize niacin from tryptophan

11

Coenzymes I and II have ? As part of their structures
A. Folic acid
B. pantothenate
C. Niacin
D. Riboflavin

C. Niacin

Niacin is part of NAD, coenzyme I or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and NADP or coenzyme II

12

Which one is a niacin defiency
A. Beriberi
B. rickets
C, pellagra
D. Megaloblastic anemia

C. Pellagra

Pellagra is a deficiency resulting in skin, digestive and neurological impairments

Beriberi results from thiamine deficiency

13

Pyridoxine is a chemical name for vitamin

B6

B6 is called pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine

14

Acetyl coenzyme A has ? In its structure
A. Flavoprotein
B. folic acid
C. Niacin
D. Pantothenic acid

D. Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid is absolutely essential because it is part of acetyl-coenzyme-A which enters the citric acid or Kreb's cycle

15

Pernicious anemia will develop in the absence of intrinsic factor or vitamin ?

B12

Cyan cobalamin is essential for the production of red blood cells, its absorption is gastric intrinsic factor

16

Choose the carbohydrate that is not a monosaccharide absorbed from the digestive tract
A. Fructose
B. maltose
C. Galactose
D. Glucose

B. maltose

Maltose is a disaccharide

17

Which cells of the body, under normal circumstances, must have energy in the form of glucose in order to survive
A. Skin cells
B. muscle cells
C. Neurons
D. Cells of the liver

C. Neurons

Neurons do not possess the enzymes necessary to process sources of energy

18

How does the body make use of dietary cholesterol?

It is used for structural material in cell membranes

Cholesterol is a vital portion of the cell membrane

19

The American heart association recommends that dietary fat should constitute no more than ? Of daily caloric intake

30%

Daily input of fats should not exceed 30% of total calories

20

Which is not one of the ways the body uses dietary protein
A. To help regulate osmotic balance of the blood
B. as an energy source
C. For building and repairing tissue
D. To synthesize bile

D. To synthesize bile

21

In order to prevent protein loss, an adult must consume at least ? Grams of carbohydrate daily.

125

Estimates are around 100-125 gms of carbohydrates are required daily to prevent protein breakdown, amounts over 300 are probably excessive and can be converted to fats

22

Which of the following is most likely used for energy?
A. Cholesterol
B. triglycerides
C. Phospholipid
D. Fats

B. triglycerides

Of the lipids, the triglycerides are normally used for energy, cholesterol is the precursor for steroid hormones, and along with phospholipids, is never burnt for energy

23

Which one can be synthesized by the liver
A. Cholesterol
B. linolenic acid
C. Arachidonic aid
D. Linolenic acid

A. Cholesterol

Certain fatty acids such as linoleic acid cannot be synthesized in the liver and are called Essen because they must be supplied in the diet, the liver plays an active role in cholesterol biosynthesis

24

A diet that is ? % fat is considered healthy

Under 30%

The am heart association recommends less than 30% fat to reduce the risk of coronary disease, along with a preference of unsaturated over saturated fats

25

Which one is the usual precursor to the others
A. Cholesterol
B. lipoprotein
C. Phospholipids
D. Triglycerides

D. Triglycerides

Triglycerides provide the fatty acids and glycerol that can be used in the synthesis of other lipids

26

There are ? Essential amino acids that must be included in the diet of a child

10

There are 8 essential adult amino acids required for adults (some say 9)' and 10 for children, there are 20 amino acids that are used to build human proteins.

27

Which is not an essential adult amino acid
A. Methionine
B. phenylalanine
C. Isoleucine
D. Alanine

D. Alanine

28

Arginine and ? Are additional amino acids that must be provided to children
A. Glutamine
B. glycine
C. Histidine
D. Cysteine

C. Histidine

There are two additional amino acids that must be supplied to growing children because their livers have not yet attained the capability to manufacture them on demand, arginine and histidine

29

Which one is an incomplete protein source
A. Fish
B. corn
C. Poultry
D. Milk

B. corn

Milk and fish are excellent sources of complete proteins, foods such as corn are incomplete because the zein (a prolamine protein) in them lacks tryptophan and lysine.

30

Which one of these functions is the least important for proteins?
A. Become blood osmotic proteins
B. convert to enzymes
C. Utilization of energy
D. Component of structure

B. utilization of energy

Blood albumin and other proteins are critical in maintaining osmotic pressure

31

The average basal metabolic rate requires one calorie of energy per hour for each ? Of body weight

Kilogram

Although body requirements vary greatly among the variables of age, sex, lifestyle and hormone levels, 1 calorie per kilogram per hour is a reasonable estimate

32

Which one does not tend to decrease basal metabolic rates?
A. Being female
B. larger individual
C. Body temperature of 97degrees F
D. Thyroxine levels

D. Thyroxine levels

Most females have higher metabolic rates

33

Which has the highest caloric usage per hour?
A. Jogging
B. walking up stairs
C. Vigorous exercise
D. Swimming

B. walking up stairs

34

The desirable weight for a 26 year old female who is 5feet and a medium frame is around ? Pounds

110

35

Persons are considered obese if their weight is ? Over the desired weight

21%

The criterion for obesity is over 20% in excess of desired weight, overweight has the criteria of 10-20% over the weight

36

Which of the following is a water soluble vitamin
A. A
B. B
C. D
D. E

B vitamins

37

Which one does not contain vitamin A
A. Carrots
B. fish
C. Milk
D. Liver

A. Carrots

Vitamin A is converted into compounds necessary for vision such as the retinol pigment rhodopsin or visual purple

38

What causes vitamin A destruction?

Light

Vitamin A is relatively stable under varying pH changes and food preparation but is unstable under sunlight and oxidizing conditions.

39

What is the most active form of vitamin D
A. Dihydroxycholecalciferol
B. cholecalciferol
C. Hydroxycholecalciferol
D. Ergocalciferol

A. Dehydroxycholecalciferol

Vitamin D is derived from cholecalciferol in the diet which is converted through a series of reactions into this active form

40

Which is the best source of vitamin D
A. Natural cow's milk
B. enriched milk
C. Fortified milk
D. Vegetables

C. Fortified milk

To fortify means to add nutrient, enriched means to partially replace a nutrient lost in processing, and steroids are only animal compounds

41

Vitamin D deficiency could result in poor

Bone growth

Since vitamin D is needed to allow calcium mobilization, the most obvious disease might be rickets or soft deformed bones

42

What vitamin is a potent anti oxidizing agent

Vitamin e

43

The most important vitamin which promotes normal blood clotting is vitamin

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is needed to synthesize the prothrombin by the liver needed for blood clotting

44

A rich source of vitamin K is

Spinach

Leafy green vegetables are the best sources of vitamin K

45

Which one is not a B complex vitamin
A. Niacin
B. riboflavin
C. Cyanocobalamin
D. Phylloquione

D. Phylloquinone

Phylloquinone is vitamin K1

46

What is the most important vitamin for carbohydrate metabolism

B-complex vitamins

The most significant enzyme co-factors that are required for oxidation and energy production are found in the B vitamins

47

Cocarboxylase is an enzyme that utilizes the vitamin ? As part of its structure
A. Thiamin
B. niacin
C. Riboflavin
D. Folic acid

A thiamin

All enzymes require a vitamin as part of their coenzyme activators, thiamine is needed to oxidize carbohydrate

48

Alcoholics are particularly susceptible to develop a ? Deficiency
A. Vitamin D
B. vitamin E
C. Thiamin
D. Riboflavin

C. Thiamin

Since thiamin is neede to oxidize alcohol, alcoholics require more than the average amounts of thiamin

49

Vitamin C is necessary for the synthesis of

Collagen

Vitamin C, ascorbic acid, is required for the production of the collagen fibers in skin, bone and other tissues

50

Vitamin C is closely related to ? In structure

Glucose

Vitamins are distinct and do not belong to any typical chemical group, but ascorbic acid is remarkably similar to glucose but does not arise from it apparently

51

The most abundant minerals in the body are calcium

Phosphate

Because of their presence in bone and other tissue, calcium phosphate slats comprise about 75% of the minerals in the body.

52

Phosphate is important for which of the following
A. Bone matrix
B. ATP and energy reactions
C. DNA and RNA
D. All of these

D. All of these

Nucleic acids must have phosphates in them

53

Methionine and cysteine are unique amino acids because they contain the element

Sulfur

All amino acid contain C, H, O, and N but only two also contain sulfur, methionine and cysteine

54

The most abundant extracellular cation, conserved by aldosterone is

Sodium

Of the positive ions, sodium is pumped out of cells by the sodium-potassium pump, blood levels are maintained by the action of aldosterone on the kidneys

55

Which ion is most important in oxygen transport

Iron

Iron is the nucleus of the hemoglobin pigment in red blood cells that bind to oxygen

56

The trace mineral ? Is essential for hemoglobin and neurological functions

Copper

Copper is required for red blood cell functioning, bone, melanin, and nerve functions although it is required in only small amounts

57

Nutrients that the body needs but can not synthesize on its own are called

Essential nutrients

58

Which one of theses carbohydrates is not a good source of energy for human?
A. Beet sugar
B. molasses
C. Cellulose
D. Fruits

C cellulose

Human do not possess the correct enzymes to break down cellulose

59

The basal metabolic rate (BMR) measures the rate of energy expenditure when

The body is awake but resting

The BMR is the amount of energy required to keep the awake body alive

60

Which vitamin is fat-soluble and has carotene as its precursor

Vitamin A

Beta carotene is a precursor to vitamin a

61

Intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of which vitamin

Vitamin B-12

With out intrinsic factor a deficiency in vitamin B-12 leads to pernicious anemia

62

Neural tube defects are easily prevented by the adequate intake of ? By the pregnant mother

Folacin

Folacin or folic acid is necessary for proper neural development

63

Which major mineral makes a major contribution to the solution concentration of extracellular fluids?

Sodium

Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation

64

The trace element ? Is necessary for wound healing, and a deficiency of it results in depressed immunity

Zinc

Leukocytes need zinc to properly function

65

What term is used to describe the synthesis of a cellular protien

Anabolism

66

Which one is a disaccharide
A. Lactose
B. glucose
C. Fructose
D. Galactose

A lactose

Lactose is glucose and galactose hooked together

67

The carbohydrate ? Is critical for the function of genes

Deoxyribose

Deoxyribose is the sugar of DNA

68

What carbohydrate can be found in steak

Glycogen

Steak is animal muscle, and thus contains abundant animal polysaccharides or glycogen

69

An essential compound not readily synthesized in the liver

Linoleic acid

Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid

70

A diet that contains ? Will have sufficient amino acids

Rice and beans

Rice and bean combined contain all essential amino acids

71

How many calories are produced from 10g carbohydrate, 5g fat and 2g protein

100

4.4 x 10 carbs (44) + 4.4 x 2 protein (9) + 9.5 x5 fat (47) =100

72

Which one influence basal metabolic rate to the greatest extent
A. Thyroid hormone
B.a high fat diet
C. More than 3,000 calorie diet
D. Cigarette smoking

A.thyroid hormone

Thyroid hormones exert a direct affect on the metabolism of most body cells

73

Which one is the hormonally active form of vitamin D?
A. Ergocalciferol
B. dihydroxycholecalciferol
C. Cholecalciferol
D. Vitamin D -

B. dihydroxycholecalciferol

Dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol acts in the small intestine

74

Hemorrhage could occur because of lack of sufficient vitamin

K

Vitamin K is necessary for the production of clotting proteins

75

The most essential vitamin required to allow carbon to enter the citric acid cycle is

Pantothenaic acid

With out pantothenic acid, acetic acic can not enter the citric acid

76

A deficiency of carbohydrate in the diet can cause muscle tissue to degenerate
T or F

True

A lack of adequate carbohydrate in the diet will cause the liver and skeletal muscles to break down their proteins and convert structures such as muscle proteins into glucose

77

Infants have a higher probability of developing lipid deficiencies than adults
T or F

True

Nutritionists recommend that 3% of the energy intake in the infant formula be the form of the essential linoleic fatty acid, recall that the liver in an infant is immature and does not have the capabilities to synthesize all needed compounds

78

Complete proteins are those that contain all the amino acids required for an adult in the diet.
T or F

False

Complete protiens contain the eight essential amino acids but not all 20 that are used by humans

79

A child usually develops a positive nitrogen balance in comparison to an adult
T or F

True

A positive nitrogen balance occurs whenever the body uses protiens to build tissues in excess of the amount that is oxidized or lost, children have anabolic rates that exceed catabolic

80

Kwashiorkor is characterized by edema and retardation
T or F

True

Protien deficiencies lead to the mental retardation and bloated bellies or as cites seen in undeveloped countries

81

The average adult requires 1,000 calories per hour per Kg body weight each day in the diet
T or F

True

Adults require around 1,500 kcal or 1,500,000 calories each day

82

A bomb calorimeter is used to determine how many calories a person will obtain from their food
T or F

False

The food in a bomb calorimeter is burned completely to determine to the total calories in a food sample, foods are never completely oxidized in metabolism, therefore these values are actually higher than normal physiologic values

83

The basal metabolic rate is the average energy consumed by a person each day
T or F

False

The BMR is the minimal energy expenditure assessed at rest following a fast

84

Shivering during the cold is a result of the lower metabolic rate of the body in response to lower temperature

T or F

False

The greatest source of heat is from skeletal muscle contraction, which is brought about by the hypothalamus in response to temperature receptors

85

A gain in weight will occur when a person has a positive energy balance
T or F

True

A positive energy balance occurs when the intake of calories exceeds the output, the excess nutrients are converted to fats stored in tissues such as liver and adipose

86

Studies have shown that persons who were over their desired weights by as much as 10 pounds actually live longer
T or F

True

Current research has indicated that in reality people live longer when their weights are slightly higher than those found in desired weight tables

87

All persons who weigh 30% in excess of their body weight are considered obese
T or F

False

They are obese if the excess is due to body adipose but not obese if the excess is due to muscle hypertrophy such as in athletes

88

A person could lose weight during exercise and still be considered obese even if their weight was normal
T or F

True

Some forms of diet and exercise accomplish a weight reduction from loss of body water, since the amount of adipose remains the same the person quickly returns to the original obese condition

89

A person with a deficient fat intake may develop vitamin E deficiency also
T or F

True

Since certain vitamins such as E are fat soluble, it is possible to have a deficiency either by diet or low body fat

90

Degenerate skin changes could be the result of either hypervitaminosis A or deficiency
T or F

True

Vitamins, especially the fat soluble, must be obtained optimal levels, maximal and minimal amounts will cause physiologic alterations

91

Infants may develop a fatal hemorrhagic disease because of their deficiency of intestinal bacteria
T or F

True

Intestinal organisms produce vitamin K which is needed to clot properly, all infants are sterile and must be given a supplement

92

Deficiencies of folacin lead to megalobastic anemia

T or F

True

Abnormally large and defective red blood cells Amy result from folic acid (folacin, folinic acid) deficiency

93

Biotin is most significant in promoting carbohydrate metabolic pathways
T or F

False

Biotin is most important in the reactions of amino acids, fatty acids and nucleic acids

94

Scurvy develops from Vitamin C deficiency
T or F

True

Scurvy causes bone, joint, and tooth abnormalities that manifest as bleeding gums and painful joints

95

Potassium is critically important for nerve and muscle conductivity and must be maintained at high blood levels
T or G

False

Potassium is found in highest concentration within cells because of the activity of the sodium potassium membrane pump

96

Anorexia is a term that means loss of appetite
T or F

True

Anorexia means loss of appetite and the major symptom of the psychological condition called anorexia nervosa which has many causes

97

Beef and codfish are a source of complex carbohydrates
T or F

True

Skeletal muscle stores the complex carbohydrate glycogen which is a polymer of glucose

98

Excess protein in the diet can cause obesity
T or F

True

Amino acids can be turned into lipids

99

Excess proteins in the diet usually cause a state of nutritional edema
T or F

False

Deficiency of protein cause nutritional edema

100

Vegetables are a good source of the vitamin A required for vision
T or F

False

Retinol ( the proper form of vitamin A) only comes from animal sources