Chapter 20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Deck (86):
1

The kidneys are located in the ? Space

Retroperitoneal

2

The entrance into the kidney is called the ?

Hilum

3

Which structure is the first to collect the urine?

Calyx

The calyces (calyx) are the extensions of the pelvis that receive the urine that has been formed

4

Each minor calyx receives urine from the ?

Renal papilla

Renal papilla is the rounded surface at the apex of each pyramid

5

Which blood vessel conveys blood out of the nephron

Interlobular vein.

Blood is not considered to be completely out of the nephron until it enters a vein.

6

Which blood vessels surround the loops of Henle?

Vasa recta

Vasa recta are branches of the periubular capillaries that dip into the medulla to encircle the loops

7

Which process is most affected by blood pressure?

Glomerular filtration

Blood pressure creates a sufficiently high hydrostatic pressure within the glomeruli to overcome the osmotic forces in the blood

8

Name 3 things found in the glomerular filtrate

Glucose, Uric acid and creatinine

9

What muscle metabolism waste product is eliminated by the kidneys

Creatinine

10

Renal secretion of a compound usually occurs from the ? Into the distal convoluted tubule?

Peritubular capillaries

11

Name 3 things usually secreted by the kidneys?

Creatinine, H+, penicillin

Creatine is reabsorbed under renal threshold limit rules, creatinine is not reused.

12

The compound used to assess the function of the kidney at the level of the glomerulus is

Inulin

Inulin is a polysaccharide that is cleared from the blood totally by filtration at the glomerulus, creatinine is secreted.

13

What could appear in the urine from dieting or the utilization of excess lipids

Ketone

Ketones are usually acidic end products of lipid catabolism and may result from dietary or disease causes

14

Vigorous exercise could release high amounts of ? Into the urine

Albumin

Albumin is the most common blood protien and could spill into the urine if high blood pressure forced it through the glomerular capillaries which are normally not permeable to colloids

15

What causes urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder

Peristalsis

The ureters have smooth muscle which causes peristaltic waves to move the urine

16

Juxtaglomerular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete ? When ?

Renin when blood pressure drops

Low blood pressure or low tubular osmotic pressure triggers activation of the renin-angiotensin system

17

Tubular reabsorption is responsible for retaining nutrients the body requires. Most tubular reabsorption occurs in the ? Where microvilli and their numerous carrier protiens increase the surface area available for reabsorption

Proximal convoluted tubule

70% or more of all reabsorption occurs in the initial segment of the renal tubule

18

Why is the plant compound known as inulin the best substance to use to measure renal clearance?

Inulin is neither reabsorbed nor actively secreted into the filtrate

19

In males as well as females, the external urethral sphincter is made up of skeletal muscles and thus is under voluntary control. Where is the external urethral sphincter located in males?

Within the urogenital diaphragm

The external urethral sphincter is part of the pelvis

20

What structure is last in the sequence of urine flow

Medulla

The medulla is the middle layer of the kidneys that contain the pyramids and columns

21

The striated appearance of the pyramids is caused by

Microtubules

The kidney contains millions of micro tubules that run parallel to each other within the pyramids

22

The kidney secretes ? For the purpose of stimulating bone marrow activity

Erythropoietin

23

Name 3 functions of the renal system

Maintain blood pH
Regulate blood pressure
Control blood concentration

The kidneys filter the blood and control its concentration of electrolytes, pH, water, wastes and carbon dioxide

24

How much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys

25%

From 15-35% of the total blood of the cardiac output filters through the kidneys

25

What blood vessel delivers blood to the cortex

Interlobular artery

The interlobular arteries enter the cortex from the interlobar arteries and give off branches that surround the renal corpuscles

26

The renal corpuscle is comprised of a glomerulus and ?

Bowman's capsule

The glomerulus and glomerular capsule are considered a functional unit called the renal corpuscle

27

What section of the nephron is after the ascending limb of the loop of Henle

Distal convoluted tubule

28

The last part of the nephron is the

Collecting duct

The collecting ducts receive the distal convoluted tubules from several nephrons

29

What area actually secretes renin into the blood

Juxtaglomerular cells

The juxtaglomerular cells are within the affferent arteriole

30

What has the highest concentration in the urine

Sodium

31

What ion is reabsorbed in exchange for sodium

Potassium

Because of the sodium-potassium membrane pump, potassium always moves in the opposite direction to sodium

32

What is the average glomerular filtration rate

180L per day

The kidneys can filter up to 125 ml per minute or 180L per day

33

What is usually not found in urine

Glucose

34

How much urine is formed in 24 hours

1.5 L

On average, persons produce between .6 and 2.5 liters of urine daily

35

Renin acts on ? To convert it to angiotensin I

Angiotensinogen

36

The targets of angiotensin II are blood vessels and

Adrenal cortex

Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction and the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex

37

Tubular reabsorption occurs from the nephron tubules into the

Periubular capillaries

38

Most tubule reabsorption occurs at the

Proximal convoluted tubule

The microvilli form a brush border on the epithelial cells in the proximal tubule that effectively increase its surface area for permeability

39

Name 3 things that operate under a renal threshold mechanism

Creatine, ascorbic acid and citric acid

40

The action of aldosterone is to increase

Sodium reabsorption

Aldosterone acts on the distal convoluted tubule to reabsorbed and conserve sodium blood levels

41

How much sodium is actively reabsorbed by the proximal segment if the nephron

70%

About 70% of the sodium that will be reabsorbed will occur at e proximal tubule

42

The countercurrent multiplier mechanism occurs at the

Loop of Henle

43

The fluid in the descending limb of the loop of Henle is ? Relative to the capillaries

Hypertonic

The fluid in the descending limb is hypertonic while the ascending limb is hypotonic

44

The function of the countercurrent multiplier is to

Increase the concentration of NaCl

The purpose of e loop of Henle is to produce a NaCl concentration beyond what could be expected under normal physiologic rules of transport

45

What affect does ADH have on urine output

Decreases

Anti diuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary and hypothalamus causes the kidney to reabsorb water and reduce diuresis

46

Where does ADH have its greatest effect

Distal convoluted tubule

ADH causes the distal convoluted tubule and the surrounding capillaries to increase their permeability to water so that it can be facultatively reabsorbed (on demand)

47

Eating large amounts of meat will increase the level of ? In the blood

Urea

Proteins are catabolized into urea

48

Renal calculi are comprised of what 3 things

Calcium oxalate, Uric acid and magnesium phosphate

Kidney stones do not contain cholesterol, but mainly oxalate. Cholesterol is usually found in gallbladder stones (cholelithiases)

49

The mucosa of the bladder is comprised of

Transitional epithelium

The lining of the bladder can be distended without tearing the protective coating of the mucous layer

50

What renal muscle is under voluntary control

External urethral sphincter

51

The micturition reflex is centered in the

Sacral cord

52

Make 3 statements that characterize the kidneys

The kidneys are positioned retroperitoneally
The kidney is padded by a layer of fat
Inside the kidney is a hollow camber called the renal sinus

53

The granular appearance of the renal cortex is due to?

The random distribution of nephrons in this area

54

The final branches of the interlobular arteries give rise to the ?

Afferent arterioles

Afferent arterioles branch off the interlobular arteries

55

The concentration of substances in the plasma, in the glomerular filtrate and in urine differ in what way

Plasma and glomerular filtrate are virtually indentical, but urine contains proportionately more waste products

56

What force favors filtration

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

Glomerular blood (hydrostatic) pressure is the outward force of filtration

57

Name 3 factors that affect glomerular filtration rates

Blood pressure
Osmotic pressure of the glomerular filtrate
Plasma osmotic pressure

58

The outermost structure of a kidney is the

Capsule

The kidney is surrounded by a capsule of dense irregular CT

59

What is the main factor that causes urine to enter the urinary bladder

Peristalsis

Peristalsis of the ureter moves urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder. Internal surface tension prevents gravity from playing a role

60

What is the main factor that promotes bladder infections in a female

Length of the urethra

The relatively short urethra makes bacterial entry into the bladder much more likely than in males

61

The urinary system functions to excrete

Soluble nitrogenous wastes

62

The structure which receives the filtrate from the glomerulus is the

Bowman's capsule

The enlarged end of the renal tubule that surrounds the glomerulus is called the bowman's capsule

63

In which area can the term urine be correctly used

Minor calyx

Once filtrate exits the collecting duct it can no longer be processed, and thus is urine

64

The kidneys have the capability of controlling their own blood flow independent of general controls for circulation of organs such a s the pancreas
T or F

True

the kidney, brain, and skeletal muscle have a high demand for oxygen and have internal mechanisms for autoregulation

65

The reason that most people only have trace amounts of albumin in their urine is that it is returned to the blood by reabsorption
T or F

False

Albumin is a protein which is not filtered through the glomerulus and therefore cannot cross its capillaries

66

The appearance of glycosuria indicates that the renal plasma threshold has been exceeded
T or F

True

The appearance of sugar in the urine indicates that the level in the blood exceeds the ability of the kidneys to reabsorb all of it

67

Vitamin C will appear in the urine when an excess is consumed in the diet or supplements

True

Vitamin C is reabsorbed into the blood at the proximal consulted tubule but only to a specific limit, taking large diesels of vitamin C will cause elimination of most of it in the urine

68

The nephrotic syndrome usually causes hypoproteinemia, proteinuria and generalized edema
T or F

True

The nephrotic syndrome is renal damage that occurs in several diseases and causes loss of protiens into the urine

69

Ions such as chloride usually passively follow the movement of cations to achieve electrical balance
T or F

True

Cell membrane are charged and their ionic potentials must be maintained at homeostatic levels; Cl- can follow Na+ to balance the loss of a positive charge

70

Water will move from a hypotonic to a hypertonic area by osmosis

T or F

True

Osmosis is governed by the concentrations of water and solute; the greater solute concentration (hypertonic) will have the least amount of water; water moves from high water (hypotonic) to lower water (hypertonic) concentrations

71

An increase of ADH production will tend to make the blood more hypertonic

T or F

False

The effect of ADH on water retention dilutes the blood making it more hypotonic

72

Excessive sweating will usually cause a person to withhold their secretion of ADH

T or F

False

Loss of water during sweating usually causes the secretion of ADH to help conserve water and blood tonicity

73

Aldosterone and ADH tend to have the same effect of blood concentration

T or F

False

ADH tends to cause blood to be hypotonic while aldosterone conserves salt and makes the blood hypertonic; both act together to maintain homeostasis

74

Gout is a diseas that causes Uric acid crystals to form in joints

T of F

True

Gout is a metabolic disorder that causes excess Uric acid in the blood to precipitate in and around joints and other tissues

75

The secretion of H+ and reabsorption of bicarbonate anions are important pH regulating mechanisms of the kidney

T or F

True

The kidney normally retains bicarbonate and secretes H+ to maintain pH balance by buffering mechanisms

76

PAH is a plasma clearance test that can be used to assess plasma flow through. The kidneys.

T or F

True

Para-aminohippuric acid is filtered at the glomerulus and secreted; PAH along with hematocrit can be used to assess total blood through the kidneys

77

Infants have a greater probability of dehydrating than adults

T or F

True

The kidneys are immature in children and do not have the ability to conserve water that they will have as adults; children could dehydrate from excess urination

78

Cystitis could spread from the bladder to the kidneys through the urethra.

T or F

False

The ureter is the tube which connects the bladder to the pelvis of the kidney

79

The membrane urethra is the portion found in males as well as females

T or F

True

The membranous urethra is located in the urogenital diaphragm at the floor of e pelvic cavity; there is no female analog to the prostrate

80

In the female, the urinary bladder lies posterior to the uterus and vagina

T orF

False

E urinary bladder is the most anterior pelvic structure in males and females

81

It is normal for urine and semen to mix in the male

T or F

False

The internal urethral sphincter contracts blocking the bladder during male sexual arousal

82

The internal urethral sphincter is totally under parasympathetic, autonomic control

T or F

False

The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle

83

Persons with spinal cord damage in the lumbar area no longer have urination reflexes

T or F

False

Sacral cord controls these reflexes, and therefore they would still occur, however conscious awareness of the reflexes would be lost

84

Chronic glomerulonephritis is usually a renal infection associated with streptococcal bacteria

T or F

False

Acute glomerulonephritis is normally associated with streptococcal infection; chronic glomerulonephritis may be non-infectious in nature

85

The glomerulus most closely resembles an area of capillaries

T or F

True

The glomerulus is a ball of capillaries intermixed with specialized connective and epithelial cells

86

There are about 1million nephrons in each kidney

T or F

True