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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (107):
0

Where do the testes originate in a fetus

Retroperitoneal space

The testes begin their descent from an area behind the parietal peritoneum near the kidneys (retroperitoneal)

1

When do the testes begin to descend

2 months prior to birth

The testes begin to leave the peritoneal space and descend through the inguinal canal before birth but their descent may not be completed some time after birth.

2

The failure of testes to descend is referred to as

Cryptorchidism

3

Spermatogenesis is a function of the

Seminiferous tubule

4

The process of capacitation usually occurs in the

Vagina

The process of weakening the acrosomal cap occurs in the female tract as the sperm cells attain penetration ability or capacitance.

5

Semen in a collective term for

Semen is the collective term for all of the components including the sperm cells (spermatozoa) and the alkaline pH, mucus and fructose

6

The urethra passes though the ? Of the penis

Corpora spongiosum

7

Name 3 things compatible with penile erection

Parasympathetic stimulation
Arterial dilation
Venous compression

Blood enters the erectile corpora tissue in the penis; stimulation is a parasympathetic event but orgasm is sympathetic

8

What hormone initiates the changes in puberty

GnRH

9

The vulva includes what

Labia
Clitoris
Vestibular glands

The vulva is the anatomical term for all of the collective female external genitalia

10

What female structure corresponds to the scrotum in the male

Labia major

The labia major are the folds of skin, adipose and smooth muscle that border the pudendal cleft

11

The ? Is the space between the labia minor

Vestibule

The vulva is the collective term for external genitalia

12

Name 3 parts of the clitoris

Corpora cavernosa
Crura
Glans

13

The female bartholin glands corresponds to the male

Cowper's

14

What hormone thickens the lining of the uterus

Estrogen

15

What hormone causes the uterus to increase glycogen

Progesterone

Progesterone stimulates the increase in lipids and glycogen in the endometrium necessary to insure implantation of the embryo

16

The shedding and bleeding of the decidua during menses is directly caused by low levels of

Sex steroids

17

Name 4 results of menopause

Loss of hormones
Reduction in breast mass
Decrease in calcium deposition
Psychological changes

18

Specifically, where are sperm cells formed within the testes

Within the seminiferous tubules

19

What is the source of the male sex hormone

Interstitial cells

20

Testicular cancer usually arises from the

Seminiferous tubules

abnormal cell division can occur in the seminiferous tubules causing a serious cancer that may warrant orchiectomy

21

Where do sperm cells attain fertilization competence and motility

Epididymis

The sperm cells are produced in the seminiferous tubules but must progress to the epididymis outside the testis to gain maturity and motility capabilities

22

Where does the epididymis direct sperm cells into

Vas deferens

The sperm proceed from the rete testis into the epididymis and through the long vas deferens tubule;

23

The end of the vas deferens is a dilated sac called the

Ampulla

The vas deferens is also called ductus deferens

24

The ejaculatory duct is the union of the vas deferens and

Seminal vesicle

Each vas deferens enters the prostate and merges with the seminal vesicle ducts to form the ejaculatory ducts

25

The substrate used for sperm metabolism is produced by

Seminal vesicle

26

The main function of the prostate seems to be

Secretion of alkaline mucus

27

Infertility could develop when the sperm cell display

A count of less than 20 million per ml semen

Many sperm cells are required to increase the probability of fertilization; less than 20 million cells seems to be inadequate since the average ejaculation contains 120 million cells per cc (ml) of semen

28

What male part has no homolog in the female

Prostate

29

The target of FSH is the

Seminiferous tubule

30

The target of ICSH is the

Interstitial cells

31

Testosterone is converted to ? In the prostate

Dihydrotestosterone

32

Name 4 functions of testosterone

Thickening of the larynx
Anabolism of skeletal muscle
Thickening of bones
Stimulation of body hair

33

What normally inhibits testosterone production

Decreasing ICSH

34

The largest ovarian ligament is the ? Ligament

Broad

The broad ligament is a fold of the peritoneum that is attached to the ovaries, uterine tubes and uterus

35

How many oocytes are there in the ovaries of an adult

400,000

Only around 400,000 oocytes remain in an adult because of atrophy of some of the primordial follicles and lack of replacement

36

Name of cell that has been fertilized by a sperm cell

Secondary oocytes

The oogonia develop into oocytes; the secondary oocyte completes its meiosis only when it is fertilized and becomes the ovum

37

A cell called the ? Is a fertilized cell with 46 chromosomes

Zygote

38

The result of oogenesis is

One secondary oocyte

Spermatogenesis produces 4 spermatozoa for every parent cell but oogenesis produces only one secondary oocyte because of the loss of cells called polar bodies from unequal meiosis

39

The outside layer of the oocytes is the

Zona pellucida

40

The mature follicle is also called a

Graafian follicle

The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle prior to ovulation; the granulosa cells are the early cells that surround an oocyte.

41

When do the corona radiata cells appear

12 days

The corona radiata is the group of follicular cells that becomes attached to the zona pellucida around 10-12 days into the cycle

42

During ovulation, the oocyte passes into the

Pelvic cavity

The oocyte eventually finds its way into the Fallopian tube

43

What is the first structure to receive the oocyte

Fimbriae


The oocyte enters the fimbriae border of the infundibulum of the uterine tubes

44

The largest component of the uterus by weight is the

Myometrium

The myometrium is the thick smooth muscle layer of the uterus; the broad ligament is wider but lighter

45

The superior portion of the uterus is the

Fundus

46

The outer serosal layer of the uterus is the

Perimetrium

The perimetrium is the outer layer of the uterus that is continuous with the ligaments.

47

The superior region of the vagina is the

Cervix

48

Which hormone stimulates the secondary female sex organs

Estrogen

The purpose of FSH and LH is to prepare the ovary to produce its estrogens which will then target secondary sex organs

49

Name 4 functions of estrogen

Favors the deposition of adipose tissue
Breast development
Increased skin blood vessels
Enlarges clitoris

50

What area experiences the greatest change in a menstrual cycle

Endometrium

51

Name 3 sources of estrogen

Adrenal gland
Ovary
Follicle

52

What factor causes the act of ovulation

LH levels

53

Where is the majority of progesterone produced

Corpus luteum

54

What hormone is produced throughout a menstrual cycle

Estrogen

55

What factor will inhibit the secretion of estrogens

Estrogens

56

What factor will inhibit LH secretion

Progesterone

57

What is the most accurate sequence of hormones of the menstrual cycle

FSH, estrogen, LH, progesterone

FSH stimulates estrogen secretion during the first half of a cycle; LH hen causes an increase in progesterone during the second half

58

During spermatogenesis, which stage is the first to be haploid in number of chromosomes

Secondary spermatocyte

59

What portion of the sperm cell contains the 23 chromosomes

Head

The head of the sperm is analogous to the nucleus

60

Males have a number of internal accessory organs. Which ones are responsible for secreting fluid containing fructose and prostaglandins

Seminal vesicles

61

Which male accessory gland lies inferior to the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra like a donut

Prostate gland

62

A number of hormonal secretions begin to increase during puberty. Which hormone appears to initiate the process of puberty

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone( GnRH)

63

Within the female ovary, primordial follicles begin their development when?

During prenatal development

Female germ cells originate prior to birth

64

What is the purpose of polar bodies during oogenesis

Polar bodies serve both as a dumping ground for extra sets of chromosomes and ensure that the ovum will have most of the cytoplasma

Polar bodies are " waste"

65

During ovulation, an ? Is released from the ovary

Secondary oocyte

66

Which layer of the uterus is shed once monthly during menstruation?

The endometrium

The internal layer of the uterus is the endometrium

67

Ovulation appears to be triggered by a mid cycle surge in

Luteinizing hormone LH

LH levels peak just prior to ovulation

68

What sexual transmitted disease is also associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility in females

Chlamydia infections

Chlamydia spreads internally causing extreme pain

69

What is the term for the primary human sex organs

Gonads

Gonads means testes or ovaries

70

What factor favors spermatozoa development

Temperature of 34 C

Spermatozoa mature best below body temperature

71

Which cells are the earliest in the male sequence of sperm production

Spermatogonia

Spermatogonia are male stem cells

72

What sperm structure contains enzymes that help penetrate ova

Acrosome

The acrosome is filled with hyaluronidase

73

Name 3 components found within the spermatic cord

Blood vessel, nerve, smooth muscle

The spermatic cord enters the scrotum

74

How many mature, functional follicles will a female produce in a lifetime

About 400

At once a month for about 35 reproductive years, 35 x 12 = 420; minus any pregnant time

75

Which structure is formed following ovulation

Corpus luteum

Follicular cells that remain in the ovary form the corpus luteum

76

Semen contain chemicals that cause female smooth muscle to contract

T or F

True

Semen contains prostaglandins which cause smooth muscle to constrict in the female tract to possibly aid fertilization

77

Testosterone injections are used to treat prostate cancer

T or F

False

Testosterone seems to stimulate the growth of cancerous tissue, while administration of female hormones such as estrogens, inhibit cancer in the male

78

Sperm cells die immediately when they are released from the body and are placed in a petri plate

T or F

False

Sperm cells can remain viable for several days outside of the body and several years if frozen if frozen at -100 degrees C

79

The Dartos muscle assists sperm development by helping maintain a testes temperature close to 98.6

T or F

False

The purpose of the smooth muscles in and outside the testes is to help maintain a scrotal temperature below that of the body

80

The crura of the corpora cavernosa attach the penis to the bones of the pubic arch

T or F

True

The crura (legs) of the pens is are the segments of the corpora cavernosa that are attached to the pubic arch; the corpora spongiosum becomes the bulb at the base

81

Emission is the release of semen from the body during the process of orgasm

T or F

False

Emission refers to the movement of sperm cells caused by peristaltic smooth muscle waves through the ducts. Ejaculation is the forceful ejection of semen from the body during orgasm and is facilitated by penile skeletal muscle bands

82

Testosterone increases the number of red blood cells

T or F

True

Testosterone is an anabolic steroid that stimulates cell division in many populations including erythrocytes which partially explains the higher RBC count in males compared to females

83

The ovarian medulla contains cells that will differentiate into the oocytes

T or F

False

The ovarian outer cortex layer contains the primitive oocytes and the medulla is comprised of blood vessels and nerves

84

The outer layer of an ovary is similar to the tinica albuginea outer testis layer

T or F

False

The tunica albuginea is made of tough white fibrous connective tissue while the outer layer of the ovary is a thin layer of soft germinal epithelial cells

85

Females produce hundreds of oocytes each month in comparison to the millions of sperm cells produced in the same age male

T or F

False

Females only produce around 450 secondary oocytes in their lifetime, only about one is produced monthly

86

Ciliated epithelium and peristaltic waves help move the oocyte through the Fallopian tubes.

T or F

True

The uterine (Fallopian) tubes are lined with ciliates simple columnar epithelial cells that move mucus toward the uterus, the walls contain peristaltic smooth muscle

87

The vagina is anterior to the bladder and posterior to the rectum

T or F

False

The vagina is posterior to the urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum

88

All of the muscle associated with the vagina is involuntary and smooth

T or F

False

There is a ring of skeletal, voluntary muscle that surrounds the opening called the bilbo spongiosum, there are several skeletal around but not in the vagina

89

During orgasm, the muscle of the uterus and uterine tubes undergo rhythmic contractions

T or F

True

The muscles of the uterus, uterine tubes and vagina undergo a rhythmic pulse of contractions that probably help move semen toward the site of fertilization

90

Female athletes usually experience menstrual cycles with excessive loss of blood

T or F

False

Female athletes usually display a drop in estrogen levels that leads to decrease in menstrual bleeding or oligomenorrhea, even cessation or amenorrhea

91

What is the first female menstrual cycle called

Menarche

92

Early breast development is called

Thelarche

93

The hormone inhibit acts to decrease the production of FSH

T or F

True

Inhibin is produced by the corpus luteum and causes an inhibition of FSH therefore prevents the development of another follicle prematurely

94

The cortical granules of the ovum membrane cause the increase in sperm acrosomal activity and penetration

T or F

False

The cortical granules actually have a lysosomal-like activity that causes the zona pellucida to harden, preventing penetration by another sperm

95

Cleavage is an early process of division that causes an increase in the size of the embryo

T or F

False

The early stages of zygote division are called cleavage periods and do not increase the size of the mass.

96

Endometriosis is the increase in uterine tissue which causes excessive bleeding and possible infertility

T or F

True

Endometriosis is the growth of excess endometrium which can spread into the uterine tubes, vagina or pelvic cavity; fertilization becomes more difficult, but the condition is sometimes cured with a pregnancy

97

For most women who decide to breast feed, it will be easier to become pregnant during the first month after delivery than it will be one year later

T or F

False

Especially if the woman breast feeds, hormones such as FSH are suppressed during the first few months after delivery, preventing the resumption of normal cycles

98

Spermicidal foams and creams are an effective means of contraception

T or F

False

Spermicidal contraceptives are effective when used with another method such as the insertion of a diaphragm

99

Estrogen stimulates fat deposition and duct development in the breasts

T or F

True

Estrogen develops the ducts of the mammary gland while progesterone stimulates the alveolar milk producing glands

100

A mammogram can be used to screen for but not diagnose breast cancer

T or F

True

Mammograms are xray photographs of breast tissue and can visualize lumps and changes, but a positive diagnosis of cancer depends upon blood tests and tissue examinations

101

The testes in the male and ovaries in the female can both be found in the pelvic cavity of an early fetus

T or F

False

The cells that become the gonads originate in the abdominal cavity near the kidney

102

Meiosis is defined as the process by which sperm cells give rise to four daughter cells each

T or F

False

Meiosis is the splitting of the nucleus

103

The epididymis is a coiled tubule in the testes that stores sperm cells

T or F

False

The epididymis is external to the teste

104

The vas deferens connects to the urethra at the base of the penis

T or F

False

The vas connects to the ejaculatory duct, not the urethra, at the prostate

105

The ovarian follicle cells will develope into the oocytes each month

T or F

False

Follicular cells support the oocytes, which are present before birth

106

In a pregnancy, the corpus luteum will last from 3 to 6 months

T or F

False

The corpus luteum last a maximum of about 3 months