Chapter 19 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy 102 > Chapter 19 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 19 Deck (101):
1

Which one is part of the upper respiratory tract
A. Lung
B. trachea
C. Bronchi
D. Pharynx

D. Pharynx

2

The internal nares will open into the

Nasopharynx

3

The olfactory nerve pass through openings in the

Cribriform plate

4

Most of the respiratory passage surface is lined with

Pseudostratified epithelium

The entrance into the system is covered with stratified squamous epithelium which is followed by pseudo stratified epithelium

5

The tissue lining the alveoli is

Simple squamous epithelium

6

How many alveoli are there in an average adult lung

300,000,000

7

Gas is exchanged in the alveoli by a process of

Simple diffusion

8

What is the entrance to the lung called

Hilus

9

The pleura cavity is the space between the lung and

Parietal pleura

10

Which of these is not a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
A. Emphysema
B. asthma
C lung cancer
D. Bronchitis

C lung cancer

11

What mechanism prevents over inflation of the lungs

Hering-Breuer reflex

12

What is the most common cause of hyperventilation?

Anxiety

13

What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere

Nitrogen

The air is 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and .04% carbon dioxide

14

What is the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen?

160 mm Hg

15

What is the normal PCO2 of the capillary blood?

45 mm Hg

The partial pressure of capillary carbon dioxide is 45 mmHg which is greater than the 40 mm Hg in the alveolar air allowing CO2 to leave the blood

16

Which on is not a function of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity
A. Warms incoming air
B. filters particles from incoming air
C. Moistens incoming air
D. Initial gas between air and blood occurs here

D. Initial gas exchange between air and blood occurs here is False

17

The ? Cartilage marks the lowermost portion of the larynx

Cricoid

The cricoid cartilage is the inferiormost cartilage of the larynx

18

Where are the true vocal cords located?

Inferior to the false vocal cords

The saying false over true supports this

19

Thin walled outpouchings of the alveolar ducts of the lungs are

Alveolar sacs

Alveolar sacs are thin-walled structures of the respiratory zone

20

The primary force responsible for air moving into the lungs during inhalation is

Atmospheric pressure

21

Which is not a function of the mucous lining of the respiratory Tract
A. Warms incoming air
B. contains microvilli
C. Contains cilia
D. Cleanses particles

B. Contains microvilli

Microvilli are cell extensions found in the gastrointestinal tract. Cilia move in a wavelike manner to remove foreign particles in the respiratory tract

22

Which one does not contain a sinus
A. Frontal bone
B. ethmoid
C. Zygomatic bone
D. Sphenoid bone

Zygomatic bone

23

Where are the palatine tonsils located

Oropharynx

24

The true vocal cords move because they are attached to the

Artyetoid cartilage

25

C-shaped pieces of cartilage are found within the

Trachea

The trachea or windpipe contains C shaped pieces of cartilage which allow the soft trachea to remain open

26

The carina separates the ? From each other

Primary bronchi

The carina is an area of cartilage which separates the openings of the two primary bronchi

27

There are how many secondary bronchi

5
There are 2 secondary bronchi on the left and 3 on the right

28

The bronchioles enter the ? Of the lungs

Lobules

29

The functional gas exchanging units are called

Alveoli

30

The relative amount of smooth muscle is highest in the

Bronchioles

The bronchioles have lost their cartilage and become mainly comprised of smooth muscle which causes them to collapse during the spasms of asthma

31

The main function of the pleural membranes is to

Reduce friction

The pleural membranes are serous and slippery and allow the lungs to slide during breathing with out damage from friction rubs

32

Atmospheric pressure is

760 mm Hg

Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 760 mm Hg or 1 atmosphere or 760 torr

33

The movement of air within the respiratory system is termed

Ventilation

Ventilation is the movement of air throughout a duct system while respiration is the exchange of gases, breathing includes the mechanical events involved

34

What prevents the alveoli from collapsing during exhalation

Surfactant

35

The main force causing the exhalation of air is the

Elastic recoil

36

During inspiration the intra-alveolar pressure reaches

758 mmHg

During inspiration the thorax expands and the intra-pulmonary pressure falls below atmospheric, this negative pressure causes air to enter the lungs

37

A pneumothorax occurs when the thoracic pleural pressure reaches around ? MmHg

760 mm Hg

A pneumothorax occurs whenever the pleural pressure reaches atmospheric, causing the lung to collapse, this may result from injury or disease

38

The ? Muscle can cause a forced exhalation

Internal intercostal

39

The amount of air that enters the lung during normal, restful breathing is called

Tidal volume

40

The amount of air that cannot be expelled is the

Residual volume

41

The total mount of air that cannot be exchanged either because of disease or because it cannot reach an exchange site is

Physiological dead space

The physiological dead space is the sum of the anatomic and alveolar dead space volumes

42

The condition characterized by alveolar fibrosis with difficultly exhaling is

Emphysema

43

The condition characterized by difficulty breathing due to an allergic response is

Bronchial asthma

44

Non-respiratory movements are most easily triggered by stimuli in which area?

Larynx

The distal parts of the lower respiratory tract lack the type of nerve supply than can act as a stimulus pathway to elicit a cough

45

What reflex involves a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm

Hiccup

A hiccup is a sudden spastic contraction of the diaphragm and results Ina sound of air striking the vocal cords

46

What reflex is caused by local alveolar decreases in oxygen content

Yawn

47

Breathing is controlled mainly by the

Medulla oblongata

48

What area exerts its effect on the primary breathing control area

Pneumotaxic area of the pons

The most primary or vital centers for breathing are located within the medulla, the pons acts as an accessory center to modify the rate of medullary breathing impulses

49

Which one favors an increase in breathing rate
A. Increased blood oxygen
B. increased blood carbon dioxide
C. Increased pH
D. Decreased acidity

B. increased blood carbon dioxide

50

What is the normal PO2 of the alveolar air

104 mm Hg

The PO2 of the alveolar air is 104 mm Hg while the capillary blood is 40 mmHg, allowing oxygen to diffuse into the blood

51

Where is the highest amount of carbon dioxide found

The arteries entering the lung

52

What condition is characterized by inflammation and infection involving the alveoli

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung alveoli that usually is caused by a bacterium such as streptococcus

53

Most of the oxygen in the blood is found in the

Hemoglobin

54

At high PO2 levels, where is most oxygen located

Oxyhemoglobin

The ability of the heme of the hemoglobin to transport oxygen is based on physical laws of pressure and attraction

55

What factor favors the release of oxygen. From hemoglobin

Decreased pH

Hemoglobin will release its oxygen faster under conditions of increased acidity, higher temperatures and carbon dioxide, it is most saturated when the blood is more alkaline

56

What has the highest affinity for hemoglobin

CO

Carbon monoxide completes with oxygen causing carboxyhemoglobin to form

57

How is most carbon dioxide transported

As bicarbonate

58

The most important factor that allows the blood to carry carbon dioxide in high amounts is

Carbonic anhydrase

Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme found in erythrocytes that increase the chemical conversion of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate

59

The exchange of gases between blood and the cells of the body in called

Internal respiration

Internal respiration occurs between blood and tissues

60

The lipoprotein known as ? Reduces surface tension within the alveoli so they do not collapse during exhalation

Surfactant

Type II alveolar cells produce surfactant

61

The force of exhalation is primarily due to

Elastic recoil of lung tissue

Recoil in the lungs causes the volume of the thoracic cage to decrease thus increasing pressure and forcing air out.

62

Even after the most forceful exhalation, a certain volume of air remains in the lungs. This volume is called

Look it up

63

The maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible is the

Vital capacity

64

The maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible is the

Vital capacity

The VC is the maximum amount of air the lungs can move

65

The basic rhythm of breathing is controlled by which portion of the brain

Dorsal respiratory group of the medullary rhythmicity center

The DRG is the main controller of breathing

66

The respiratory membrane, across which gasses diffuse, is very thin and is made up of

Alveolar cell membrane, capillary membrane, and fused basement membranes

67

The diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood is dependent upon

The partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs and in the blood

According to Henry's law, partial pressure differences determine gas movements

68

What is the first structure in this respiratory sequence

Pharynx

The pharynx, or throat, is the most superior structure in the sequence

69

Which structures play the greatest role in warming and humidifying air

Conchae

The turbulence provided by the conchae, along with their surface area, provides great warming capabilities

70

The area directly superior to the soft palate is the

Nasopharynx

71

Which passageway serves as a common route for food for food or air

Oropharynx

The orpharynx communicates with both the nasal and oral cavities

72

What is the opening to the larynx called

Glottis

The glottis is the opening to the airways

73

What is the Adam's apple directly part of

Thyroid cartilage

An anterior fold in the thyroid cartilage is known as the "Adam's apple"

74

Which part of the bronchial tree has the greatest relative percentage of smooth muscle fibers

Bronchioles

Bronchi are mostly cartilage, alveoli are only epithelium, but bronchioles have smooth muscle

75

The only structures that allow gas diffusion across them are the

Alveoli

Only the walls of alveoli are thin enough for gas exchange

76

The space between the two lungs is called

Mediastinum

The heart, esophagus and trachea are located in the mediastinum

77

What is the most powerful stimuli for breathing

Low pH and high carbon dioxide

Central chemoreceptors will trigger breathing increases if acid and or CO2 are high

78

During inspiration the diaphragm moves upward while the thorax expands and moves outward
T or F

False

During inhalation the diaphragm contracts and moves downward causing the thorax to increase and the abdomen to decrease in size

79

When the diaphragm contracts, the pressure within the thoracic cavity decreases
T or F

True

While the diaphragm contracts the pressure with in the thoracic cavity falls because of the larger space and is now below atmospheric

80

The compliance of the lung increases as the lung expands
T or F

False

Compliance refers to the ability of the lungs to expand as a result of pressure changes, the compliance decreases with inhalation because it becomes increasingly difficult to expand an expanded lung even further

81

The anatomical dead space represents the air that is trapped in the alveoli and is around 150 mL
T or F

False

The anatomical dead space represents the amount of air that does not come in contact with the alveoli but remains in the passages

82

The alveolar dead space is e volume of air that cannot cross the alveoli because of a disease process
T or F

True

The alveolar dead space is the amount of air that cannot functionally cross the alveoli for exchange because of changes such as poor capillary blood flow.

83

Bronchogenic carcinoma is a lung cancer that has spread or metastasized from some outside organ
T or F

False

Bronchogenic carcinoma begins in the epithelial lining of the bronchial tree

84

The alveolar ventilation is usually less than the minute respiratory volume
T or F

True

The alveolar ventilation rate is the breathing rate per minute times the tidal volume minus the physiologic dead space, in a male this is around 4,200mL per minute in comparison to 6,000mL per minute which is the average minute respiratory volum

85

There are chemoreceptors in the aortic and carotid bodies which are very sensitive to fluctuations in the levels of blood oxygen
T or F

False

Oxygen is a vital gas required for cells but the body is least able to detect it directly, but instead relies on reflexes associated with pH or CO2, the direct response to low oxygen levels is weak

86

Decreasing blood oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide cause major increases seen in breathing rate during strenuous exercise
T or F

False

Studies now indicated that the stretch reflexes mediated by proprioceptors in the joints and muscles may have a greater effect on increasing heart rate than blood parameters

87

Hyperventilation causes its symptoms mainly because it results in respiratory acidosis
T or F

False

Hyperventilation causes the excess elimination of carbon dioxide and H+, therefore raising the pH, alkalosis than causes CNS changes such as dizziness

88

The respiratory membrane is the simple squamous epithelium of the alveoli
T or F

False

The respiratory membrane is a combination of the alveolar membrane and the capillary membrane in contact with it

89

There are phagocytic cells within the lungs that move among the alveoli to remove foreign particles
T or F

True

The alveolar macrophages are able to move through the pores in the alveoli and are part of the reticuloendothial system

90

If the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide was 45 mm Hg, carbon dioxide would not readily diffuse into the air
T or F

True

The movement of gases depends upon the simple laws of diffusion, the capillary PCO2 is usually 45mm Hg so there would be no net movement in is case

91

The PO2 in the pulmonary veins is less than the PO2 in the alveolar air
T or F

True

The alveolar PO2 is 104 mm Hg while the pulmonary blood that leaves the lung, in the pulmonary veins, has a PO2 off 100 mm Hg

92

Retrolental fibroplasia develops in an infant who does not have sufficient blood oxygen
T or F

False
RLF may develope and cause blindness in infants who have been exposed to excess oxygen or hyperopia conditions, because of retinal capillary damage from the oxygen

93

ARDS is a condition of lung collapse or atelectasis in a newborn
T or F

False

Atelectasis can occur in the infant respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS is the adult respiratory syndrome RDS

94

At high altitudes it is difficult to breathe because the air has a lower percent of oxygen
T or F

False

At high altitudes, the percent of oxygen may remain the same but there is a lower effective pressure because the atmospheric pressure and therefore the partial pressure is less than 160 mm Hg

95

Oxygen dissociates faster from hemoglobin during exercise
T or F

True

Hemoglobin releases its oxygen faster under conditions of acidity such as those generated during skeletal muscle contraction, the purpose is to increase muscle oxygen

96

Carbon dioxide and oxygen compete for binding sites with the hemoglobin
T or F

False

Carbon dioxide is transported on the NH2 of the globin as carboaminohemoglobin and oxygen is independently carried on the iron

97

When swallowing, the soft palate would have to move downward in order to prevent food from entering the lungs
T or F

False

The soft palate moves upward to block the nasal cavity

98

In order to maintain homeostatis, chloride ions follow as bicarbonate moves out of the erythrocytes
T or F

False

In the chloride shift, Cl- ions are exchanges for HCO3- in order to maintain a state of electrical balance (electrophysiologic homeostatis)

99

The main purpose for cellular oxygen is to provide a means of producing most of the cell energy
T or F

True

Oxygen is used in many metabolic steps to result in energy, including the citric acid cycle only a small amount of energy can be obtained anaerobically by human cells

100

The smooth muscle within the vocal coeds allow them to change their tension for vocalization
T or F

False

The muscles of the vocal cords are skeletal muscles

101

The trachea contains rings of cartilage that surround the windpipe to keep it rigid
T or F

False

The tracheal rings are incomplete witch allow flexibility.