Chapter 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Deck (102):

Which intestinal layer accounts for the action of the peristaltic waves
A. Serosa
B. muscularis
C. Submucosa
D, mucous

B. muscularis.


The alimentary tube is around ? Meters long
A. 2
B. 4
C. 6
D. 9

D. 9. The alimentary tube is about 9 meters or 28 feet long on the average


The ? Nervous system division usually stimulates and promotes digestion
A. Somatic
B. sympathetic
C. Central
D. Parasympathetic

D. Parasympathetic


The processes of chewing are referred to as



Gastric enzymes are secreted by ? Cells
A. Chief
B. goblet
C. Parietal
D. Oxyntic

A. Chief. Chief (peptic)cells secrete enzymes while the parietal cells produce hydrochloric acid, parietal cells are also oxyntic.


Proteins are digested or broken down by the ? In the stomach
A. Pepsinogen
B. pepsin
C. Hydrochloric acid
D. Lipase

B. pepsin. Pepsinogen is the inactive form that is activated by the acidity and converted to pepsin, the term lipase refers to a general enzyme which catalyzes the breakdown of fats or lipids.


Parasympathetic stomach impulses cause all the following except
A. Secretion of somatostatin
B. inhibition of somatostatin
C. Secretion of gastrin
D. Promotes histamine

A. Secretion of somatostatin. Somatostatin normally inhibits the production of hydrochloric acid and parasympathetic nerves promote digestion, gastrin is a hormone which also promotes gastric activity


Gastrin secretion will stop when the stomach pH reaches
A. 7
B. 4.5
C. 1.5
D. 3.0

C 1.5. One purpose of the hormone gastrin is to increase the acidity of the stomach, when the pH reaches 1.5 the gastrin is inhibited by negative feedback mechanisms


The alkaline tide occurs when ? Is secreted into the blood.
B. H+
C. Bicarbonate ions
D. Phosphate ions

C. Bicarbonate ions. As the body attempts to maintain a balance of ions, HCO3x2- ions are absorbed into the blood as H+ ions enter the stomach lining from the blood, this exchange of bicarbonate for hydrogen following a meal is called the alkaline tide.


The ? Duct directly receives the fluids from the gallbladder
A. Cystic
B. common bike
C. Hepatic
D. Common hepatic

A. Cystic. The cystic is the gallbladder duct, eventually all ducts will merge to form the common bile duct


The common bile duct is formed by the merger of the hepatic and ? Ducts
A common hepatic
B. cystic
C. Pancreatic
D. Santorini

B. cystic. The common bile duct is formed as the cystic duct from the gall badder joins the common hepatic duct. The common hepatic duct is the merger of the ducts from the 4 liver lobes


The ampulla of Vater is the area that joins the common bile duct to the ? Duct
A. Hepatic
B. pancreatic
C. Cystic
D. Common hepatic

B, pancreatic. The ampulla of Vater or duodenal papilla is the area that joins the duodenum and is guarded by the hepatopancreatic sphincter (Oddi)


Gallbladder stones are medically referred to as a ? Condition
A. Cholecystitis
B. cholecystectomy
C. Cholelithiasis
D. Cholesterol calculi

C. Cholelithiasis. Removal of the gallbladder is cholecystectomy


Bile facilitates digestion by causing the ? Of fats
A. Hydrolysis
B. digestion
C. Catalysis
D. Emulsification

D. Emulsification.


Bile salts combine with fatty acids to form complexes called ? That facilitate absorption
A. Chylomicrons
B. micelles
C. globules
D. Lipoproteins

B. micelles


Amylase could be found in all of these areas except
A. Mouth
B. stomach
C. Duodenum
D. Pancreas

B. stomach. The stomach does not have the pH or enzymes capable of starch digestion


Most of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the
A. Colon.
B. duodenum
C. Jejunum
D. Ileum

C. Jejunum


Fatty acids and glycerol are released when ? Are broken down by liver or muscle cells
A. Miscelles
B. chylomicrons
C. Lacteals
D. Lipoproteins

B. chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are aggregates of lipids and lipoproteins, liver and muscle cell contain lipoprotein lipases that hydrolyze the chylomicrons


Which is not readily absorbed in the small intestine
A. Na+
B. Cl-
C. K+
D. Mg2+

D. Mg2+ Ions with more than one charge such as magnesium, sulfates, and calcium are poorly absorbed. This is one reason why ocean water cannot be ingested with out serious osmotic consequences


The ileocecal valve prevents chyme from entering
A. Large intestine
B. small intestine
C. Stomach
D. Duodenum

A. Large intestine. The ileocecal valve constricts to prevent food from leaving the small intestine and is under neurological reflex control


The frenulum is the membrane attached to the inferior surface of the
A. Tongue
B. Stomach
C. Lips
D. Liver

A. Tongue. The lingual frenulum is a membranous fold of the mucous membrane that surrounds the tongue and attaches to the midline of the floor of the oral cavity


The following are true of the tongue except
A. Contains skeletal muscle
B. attaches to the hyoid bone
C. Attaches to the temporal bone
D. Contains papillae

C. Attaches to the temporal bone. The papillae are the elevations, some of which contain taste buds


Which lymphatic areas are most commonly e sites of inflammation
A. Peyer's patches
B. palatine tonsils
C. Lingual tonsils
D. Adenoids

B. palatine tonsils. The palatine tonsils are located in the fauces of the oral cavity and are frequent sites of tonsillitis and infection, Peyer's patches are in the wall of the ileum


The term wisdom tooth refers to the ? Tooth
A. Incisor
B. third molar
C. Second bicuspid
D. First bicuspid

B. third molar. The third molars erupt between 17 and 25 years of age and therefore the last to appear, they do not erupt in all persons and may remain impacted


The portion of a tooth which lies within the mandible socket is called the
A. Dentin
B. crown
C. Root
D. Cementum

C. Root. The dentin is the bony material of the tooth


Which part of the tooth is most closely resembles bone tissue
A. Enamel
B. cementum
C. Dentin
D. Gingiva

C. Dentin. Dentin is the bone like matrix below the outer enamel and both contain calcium salts, the gingiva is the soft outer gums


Which muscles constrict to prevent air from entering the esophagus during breathing
A. Superior constrictor
B. middle constrictor
C. Inferior constrictor
D, esophageal

C. Inferior constrictor. The inferior constrictor muscle of the pharynx originate from the larynx, some remain in a state of constriction to prevent air from entering the esophagus during breathing


A hiatal hernia is a weakness in the ? Muscle, which allows a portion of the digestive tract to enter the thoracic cavity
A. Diaphragm
B. stomach
C. Intestinal
D. Thoracic wall

A. Diaphragm. A hiatal hernia is a protrusion of the stomach or other structure through the opening of the diaphragm called the esophageal hiatus


The ? Part of the stomach is the area connected to the esophagus
A. Cardiac
B. pyloric
C. Fundus
D. Body

A. Cardiac. There is a functional sphincter at the entrance of the stomach called the cardiac region or cardia, the fundus is the portion that serves as a temporary storage area


The ? Prevents food from entering the small intestine
A. Cardiac sphincter
B. pyloric valve
C. Ileo-colic valve
D. Sphincter of Oddi

B. pyloric valve. The cardiac sphincter is near the esophagus end


What is the stimulus for cholecystokinin release
A. Chyme
B. lipids
C. Protein
D. Gastrin

B. lipids


What blocks pancreatic secretions from entering the duodenum?
A. Pyloric valve
B. sphincter of Oddi
C. The common bile duct
D. Cholecystokinin secretion

B. sphincter of Oddi. The hepatopancreatic sphincter prevents pancreatic and liver secretions from entering the small intestine at an inappropriate time


Which one triggers the formations of the others
A. Trypsin
B. enterokinase
C. Carboxypeptidase
D. Chymotrypsin

B. enterokinase. Enterokinase from the small intestine catalyzes the conversion of trypsinogen to trypsin which then activates chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase


Proteins are split by all of the following pancreatic factors except
A. Zymogen
B. chymotrypsin
C. Trypsin
D. Carboxypeptidase

A Zymogen


Pancreatitis is mainly the result of ? Activity
A. Bile
B. bacterial
C. Carboxypeptidase
D. Trypsin

D. Trypsin


Which one is not active in the duodenum
A. Nuclease
B. enterokinase
C. Pepsin
D. Amylase

C. Pepsin


Secretin from the duodenum causes the pancreas to produce secretions rich in
A. Proteolytic enzymes
B. amylase
C. Lipase
D. Bicarbonate

D. Bicarbonate. Acid in the duodenum causes the release of the hormone secretin which stimulates the pancreas to produce a bicarbonate rich solution for the purpose of neutralizing the acidity


Which one is a hormone name
A. Trypsin
B. ribonuclease
C. Cholecystokinin
D. Chymotrysinogen

C. Cholecystokinin. Cholecystokinin is the hormone that causes the gall bladder to constrict, the others are enzymes


The hormone which causes the pancreas to secrete an enzyme rich fluid is
A. Cholecystokinin
B. secretin
C. Enterogastrone
D. Enterocrinin

A. Cholecystokinin.
Enterocrinin stimulates the duodenum


Which organ has the most metabolically active cells
A. Pancreas
B. liver
C. Stomach
D. Small intestine

B. liver. The liver contains the greatest number of and most diverse array of enzymes in the body and is capable of multiple biomolecular conversions


Ferritin is a globular protein that transports and stores ? In the liver and blood
A. Glycogen
B. lipids
C. Vitamin B 12
D. Iron

D. Iron.


Which one of these vitamins is not stored in the liver
A. C
B. D
C. B12
D. A

A. C. The liver stores fat soluble vitamins such as A and D and some water soluble vitamins like B12 but not ascorbic acid to any extent


The liver stores ? For energy
A. Nucleic acid
B. glycogen
C. Glucose
D. Vitamins

B. glycogen. Excess glucose is converted to glycogen in the liver by the process of glycogenesis, which also occurs in skeletal muscle


Which one is not a function do the adult liver
A. Glycogen storage
B. detoxification
C. Synthesis of clotting proteins
D. Erythropoisis

D. Erythropoiesis. Prothrombin and fibrinogen are made in the liver


The liver contains special blood channels termed
A. Sinusoids
B. central vein
C. Hepatic cells
D. Portal veins

A. Sinusoids. Sinusoids are special blood channels that represent a merger of arteries and veins, these sinusoids can allow the permeability of proteins


The falciform ligament separates the right from ? Lobe
A. Quadrate
B. left
C. Caudate
D. Pancreatic

B. left. There are several ligaments associated with the liver, the coronary ligament attaches e liver to the diaphragm. The falciform separated the right and left lobes


Which organ produces and secretes bile?
A. Liver
B. gall bladder
C. Pancreas
D. Duodenum

A. Liver. Bile is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder


The Kupffer cells are phagocytic cells found in the
A. Gall bladder
B. pancreas
C. Intestine
D. Liver

D. Liver. The pancreas has no resident macrophage population


The buildup of bile pigment in tissues that can be caused by gallstones is
A. Hyperbilirubinemia
B. obstructive jaundice
C. Hepatitis
D. Hepatocellular jaundice

B. obstructive jaundice. Excess bile pigments in the blood is hyperbilirubinemia


Which one is a water soluble vitamin
A. D
B. C
C. E
D. K

B. C. Vitamin C and most of the B complex vitamins are water soluble, A, D, E and K are lipid soluble


Which one acts to inhibit acid production
A. Secretin
B. somatostatin
C. Cholecystokinin
D. Gastrin

B. somatostatin
Secretin promotes acid production


Which area has the greatest amount of enzyme activity
A. Duodenum
B. colon
C. Jejunum
D. Ileum

A. Duodenum.

The colon is devoid of enzyme function


The shortest section of the intestines is the
A. Colon
B. duodenum
C. Ileum
D. Jejunum

B. duodenum

The colon may be six feet long


The membrane that hangs like an apron over the intestine is the
A. Mesentery
B. visceral peritoneum
C. Parietal peritoneum
D. Greater omentum

D. Greater omentum

The mesentery acts to suspend the intestines to the body wall


The finger like extensions inside the small intestine are called ? And increase the surface area
A. Microvilli
B. villi
C. Lacteals
D. Lumens

B. villi
The microvilli are the cell processes on the columnar cells that line the intestines, the lumen is the space or opening and the villi are the projections that contain the microvilli


The ? Are vessels that project into the villi and absorb fatty substances
A. Lacteals
B. lymphatics
C. Veins
D. Arteries

A. Lacteals. Lacteals enter the villi and convey their absorbed fats into the lymphatic vessels that return fluids to the circulation


The following belong together except
A. Small intestine
B. large intestine
C. Plicae circulares
D. Crypts of lieberkuhn

B. large intestine

The small intestine has glands in the crypts of lieberkuhn and folds called plicae


Which one does not belong
A. Lipase
B. sucrase
C. Maltase
D. Lactase

A. Lipase

Lipase catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids and the others are disaccharidases that beak down double sugars


Which one is the only area that can digest a double sugar
A. Jejunum
B. stomach
C. Duodenum
D. Pancreas

C. Duodenum.

Only the duodenum lining has the mucosal cells that secrete the disaccharidases that can hydrolyse sugars such as sucrose


A peristaltic rush which results in a failure to absorb enough colon water results in
A. Constipation
B. diarrhea
C. Cramps
D, flatus

B. diarrhea.

Diarrhea is the elongation of a watery stool caused by poor absorption

Flatus is intestinal gas


The ? Layer of the alimentary canal contains loose connective tissue, glands, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves
A. Mucosa
B. submucosa
C. Muscular layer
D serosa

B. submucosa.

The mucosa is mostly epithelium


Activities of the digestive system are generally increased by ? Nervous stimulation
A. Sympathetic
B. parasympathetic
C. Somatic
D. Autonomic

B. parasympathetic

The parasympathetic division is sometimes referred to as the resting and digesting division


The purpose of the soft palate is to

Close off the nasal cavity during swallowing


What mouth part helps to miss food with saliva, move food toward the pharynx for swallowing and house taste receptor cells?


The tongue is very active in mastication and deglutition


Which salivary glands produce the most viscous saliva with lots of mucus
A. Sublingual glands
B. submandibular glands
C. Parotid glands
D. Serous cells

A. Sublingual glands.

Sublingual glands are over 90% mucous acini


What initiates the swallowing reflex?
A. Fear of chocking on food
B. the tongue rolli g the boils to the pharynx
C. Sensory receptors detecting the bonus in the pharynx
D. Secretion of saliva at the thought of food

C. Sensory receptors detecting the bonus in the pharynx

The swallowing reflex (involuntary part of swallowing) is initiated by e stretch of the pharyngeal wall


The main part of the stomach is the ? Of the stomach



Intrinsic factor is secreted by which cells of the gastric glands
A. Mucous cells
B. chief cells
C. Peptic cells
D. Parietal cells

D. Parietal cells

Parietal cells secrete HCl and intrinsic factor


During which stage of gastric secretion do gastric glands actually begin secreting gastric juice
A. Cephalic phase
B. gastric phase
C. Intestinal phase
D. Enter gastric reflex

A. Cephalic phase

About 20-30% of gastric secretion occurs due to the cephalic phase


The pancreas secretes enzymes that enter the small intestine and chemically digest chyme. Choose the enzyme(s) that break(s) down fats
A. Carboxypeptidase
B. pancreatic lipase
C. Trypsinogen
D. Pancreas amylase

B. pancreatic lipase

The word lipase means lipid hydrolysis


What hormone does the small intestine release in response to acidic chyme?
A. Cholecystokinin
B. secretin
C. Digestin
D. Gastrin

B. secretin.

Acidic chyme trigger secretin release. Secretin causes the pancreas to secrete bicarbonate to buffer the acid


What is the primary purpose of the liver in aiding digestion?

Produce bile to emulsify fats in the small intestine.

The liver's only"digestive" function is to produce bile


How are the components of fats absorbed in the small intestine?

Components of lipids diffuse through small intestinal cell membranes, are reconstructed in the cells, and then carried off by lacteals as chylomicrons

Lipids form chylomicrons, which are transported in the lymphatics, not blood vessels


What is the primary function of the large intestine?

To compact, store and eliminate feces.

The large intestine mainly absorbs water and makes final preparations for defecation


Where does the greatest amount of digestion occur?

Small intestine

Over 90% of all digestion takes place in the small intestine


Which term does not belong to the others?
A. Teeth
B. mastication
C. Esophagus
D. Tongue

C. Esophagus.

The teeth, tongue and mastication are parts of the oral cavity. The esophagus is not


The portion of a tooth below the gums is the



The enzyme salivary amylase begins which molecules?
A. Proteins
B. carbohydrate
C. Lipids
D. Nucleic acids

B. carbohydrate

Amylase digests carbohydrate


The surface of the stomach is enhance by the presence of folds called
A. Rugae
B. villi
D. Plicae

A. Rugae.

The stomach has internal longitudinal folds called rugae


Where would the least amount of bacteria be found?
A. Small intestine
B. colon
C. Stomach
D. Pharynx

C. Stomach.

The HCl and pepsin in the stomach make it a very harsh environment for bacteria


What normally holds the intestines in position within the abdominal cavity
A. Mesentery
B. gravity
C. Adipose
D. Stomach muscles

A. Mesentery

The dorsal mesentery of the alimentary tract persists attached to the small intestine


The pancreatic duct connects to what part of the digestive tube?
A. Jejunum
B. liver
C. Ileum
D. Duodenum

D. Duodenum.

The pancreatic duct empties into the first few inches of the duodenum


The appendix is attached to which structure?
A. Transverse colon
B. descending colon
C. Ascending colon
D. Cecum

D. Cecum

The appendix attaches to the very beginning of the large intestine


Which one of these vitamin is formed by bacteria in the colon?
A. C
B. D
C. B6
D. K

D. K

Vitamin K is a major product of intestinal bacteria


During swallowing, the soft palate is moved upward and the epiglottis is tilted downward
T or F


Swallowing is a complicated series of events that must prevent food from entering the nasal cavity and larynx, the epiglottis covers the opening of the larynx called glottis


Gastric intrinsic factor is essential for e absorption of vitamin B12
T of F


The parietal cells produce gastric intrinsic factor which is needed to absorb the vitamin B12 necessary for blood cell development.


Emetics causes the vomiting center in the hypothalamus to propel food by contracting stomach muscles
T or F


The vomiting center is in the medulla oblong ate and causes the diaphragm to contract which increases pressure within the stomach by its external force, vomiting involves respiratory reflexes


The enterogastric reflex normally inhibits the further contraction of the stomach as the duodenum fills
T or


There are a number of nerve reflexes that aid in the proper movement of food, the enterogastric reflex occurs as the duodenum fills with chyme and stimulates stretch receptors, which send an impulse to the stomach muscle preventing further movement of food into the duodenum


Cystic fibrosis is an inherited diseas that affects digestion as well as respiration
T or F


Cystic fibrosis is a genetic diseas that causes the production of a thick, fibrinous mucus secretion from respiratory or digestive lining cells than may block the ducts associated with the panceas


The portal vein drains blood from the liver and convey it to the inferior vena cava
T or F


The hepatic portal veins drain the gastrointestinal areas and convey the blood to the liver, the hepatic veins then leave the liver


The liver has the ability to convert carbohydrate into amino acids
T or F


The liver can convert macromolecules to other types


Hepatitis can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis A which can be transmitted by contaminated food
T or F


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that is usually transmitted by oral or fecal contamination.


Hepatitis is infection of the liver most commonly caused by hepatitis A virus
T or F


Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver


Hemolytic jaundice is a diseas involving excess production of erythrocytes
T or F


Hemolytic jaundice is a symptom of the rapid breakdown of red blood cells


Without a gallbladder, a person will develop vitamin and lipid deficiencies because of lack of bile
T or F


The gallbladder only stores the bile, the liver will continue to secrete bile in sufficient amounts to meet nutritional need


In the condition of lactose intolerance, the person develops problems because of the rapid digestion of lactose
T or F


In lactose intolerance the person cannot digest lactose sufficiently and the combination of increases osmotic pressure and bacterial fermentation cause cramping to occur


Chylomicrons are lipoproteins aggregates that are absorbed into the intestinal villi
T or F


The lipoprotein complexes represent methods of transporting fatty substances, including cholesterol and are manufactured in the intestines


The digestive system functions to provide cells with proper amounts of proteins, carbohydrate or fats
T or F


The digestive system only processes and absorbs what we eat


The so-called wisdom teeth are actually the four last molars
T or F


The most posterior molars are sometimes called wisdom teeth


The pyloric sphincter acts to prevent food from leaving the small intestine
T or F


The pyloric sphincter blocks the stomach


The area called the vermiform appendix apparently serves no digestive function in humans
T or F


Although a digestive role has not been elucidated for the appendix, this are does have numerous lymph nodes that play a role in defense against infection


The descending colon usually lies on the left abdominal wall area
T or F


The descending colon is left and the ascending colon is in the right area