Chapter 14- Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14- Principles of Disease and Epidemiology Deck (44):
1

the study of disease

pathology

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the study of the cause of a disease

etiology

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the development of disease

pathogenesis

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colonization of the body by pathogens

infection

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an abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally

disease

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may be present for days, weeks or months

transient microbiota

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permanently colonize the host

normal microbiota

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the relationship between normal microbiota and the host

symbiosis

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one organism benefits and the other is uneffected

commensalism

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both organisms benefit

mutualism

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one organism benefits and the other is harmed

parasitism

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some normal microbiota are _____

opportunistic pathogens

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a competition between mircobes

microbial antagonism

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how do normal microbiota protect the host?

occupy niches that pathogens could get in
produce acids
produce bacteriocins

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live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial effect

probiotics

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What are Koch's Postulates?

1-same pathogen must be present in every case of disease
2-pathogen must be isolated from disease host and grown in pure culture
3-pathogen from pure culture must cause the disease when inocculated into healthy subject
4-pathogen must be isolated from subject and be shown to be original organism

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used to prove the cause of an infectious diease

koch's postulates

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some pathogens can cause _____ disease condition

several

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some pathogens can cause disease only in _____

humans

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change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease

symptom

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change in body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease

sign

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a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease

syndrome

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disease that is spread from one host to another

communicable disease

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disease that is easily spread from one host to another

contagious disease

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disease that is not transmitted from one host to another

noncommunicable disease

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symptoms develop rapidly

acute disease

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disease develops slowly

chronic disease

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symptoms between acute and chronic

subacute

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disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive

latent disease

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pathogens are limited to a small area of the body

local infection

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an infection throughout the body

systemic infection

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systemic infection that began as a local infection

focal infection

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Predisposing factors

short urethra, inherited traits, climate and weather, fatigue, age, lifestyle, chemotherapy

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may have inapparent infections or latent disease

carriers

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human continual sources of infection

aids, gonorrhea

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animal continual sources of infection

rabies, lyme disease

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nonliving continual sources of disease

botulism, tetanus

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true false: some zoonoses may be transmitted to humans

true

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requires close association between infected and susceptible host

direct transmission

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spread by fomites

indirect transmission

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transmission via airborne droplets

droplet

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transmission by an inanimate resevoir

water, food, air
vehicle transmission

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arthropod carries pathogen on feet

mechanical transmission

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pathogen reproduces in vector

biological transmission