Chapter 15-2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15-2 Deck (52):
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Pancreatic amylase

Digest carbs

1

Pancreatic lipase

Digest fat

2

Pancreatic nuclease

Digests nucleic acid

3

Trypsin

Digest protein

4

Why must proteolytic enzymes be secreted in an inactive form

Because they digest protein

5

Hormone that stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice with high concentration of bicarbonate ions

Secretin

6

What is the function of bicarbonate ions

Neutralize acid of chyme

7

What's the function of cholecystokinin

Hormone that stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice with high concentration of digestive enzyme

8

Livers functional units

Hepatic lobules

9

State the functions of the liver

Metabolizes carbs, lipids, and proteins
Stores glycogen, iron, vit A, D, and B12
Filters blood
Detoxification
Secretes bile

10

What is the most abundant composition of bile

Bile salts

11

Why don't new bile salts have to be made everyday

90% of bile salts are re absorbed by liver

12

Function of the gall bladder

Stores bile between meals

13

What causes gall stones

Cholesterol in bile may form crystals

14

What is cholecystectomy

Surgical removal of the gall bladder

15

Function of bile salts

Emulsification of fat (breaks it down into smaller droplets)
Aid absorption of fatty acids, cholesterol, and vitamin A,D,E,K

16

Uppermost part, 10 inches long, most fixed portion

Duodenum

17

2nd part, 8 ft long

Jejunum

18

Last part, 12 ft long

Ileum

19

Double layered membrane that suspends and supports small intestine

Mesentery

20

Tiny projections of mucous membrane increasing surface area aiding in absorption

Villi

21

List 3 secretions of the small intestine

Mucus, watery neutral fluid, digestive enzyme

22

Final product villi absorbs

Monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerol

23

Explain ileocecal sphincter

Muscle that controls the movement of intestine contents from small to large intestine

24

First 2-3 in. Of large intestine

Cecum

25

Narrow tube with closed end projecting from cecum

Vermiform appendix

26

Extends from cecum to anus

Colon

27

Last few centimeters of large intestine

Anal canal

28

Opening to exterior

Anus

29

Compare and contrast structure of small and large intestine

Both composed of same type of tissue
L: lacks Villi and blood vessels
S: has intentional glands

30

Fibers form bands creating a series of pouches

Haustra

31

Functions of large intestine

Secretes muscus
Absorbs water and electrolytes
Stores and forms feces
Bacteria produces vitamins that are absorbed by intestine

32

What r the movements of the large intestine

Peristalsis and mixing occurs but slower

33

chymotrypsin

Digest protein

34

carboxypeptidease

Digest protein

35

What is acute pancreatitis

Blockage in the release of pancreatic juice

36

In acute pancreatitis what builds up in the organ and digests part of pancreas

Trypsinogen

37

Cystic fibrosis

Water is drawn into the cells which dries out secretion in lungs and pancreas leaving a sticky mucus. Either pat person on back to bring mucus up or take digestive enzyme pills to digest food for you

38

Inflammation of the liver

Hepatitis

39

Spreads by contact with food or objects contaminated with virus containing feces

Hepatitis A

40

Spreads by contact with virus containing body fluids such as blood saliva or semen. Transmitted by blood transfusions, needles, or sexual activity

Hepatitis b

41

Most common hepatitis

C

42

Transmitted in blood by sharing razors or needles and people infected suffer from chronic symptoms

Hep c

43

Must have hep B to have this. Associated with blood

Hep D

44

Transmitted in water contaminate with feces in developing nations

Hep E

45

Passes from feces and can infect other primates

Hep F

46

Why can't antibiotic drugs help hep

Antibiotic drugs are good for bacteria. Hep is a virus. U must wait out symptoms or be given interferon (given as drug)

47

What is jaundice

Turns skin and whites of eyes yellow due to buildup of bile pigments

48

What does cellular turnover mean

Small intestines epithelial lining is renewed every 3-6 days. 25% of feces is dead epithelial cells

49

What is appendicitis and what can it lead to

Appendix becomes inflamed and infected
If ruptured the contents of large intestine will enter abdominal cavity causing peritonitis

50

What's lactose intolerance

Lactose remains un digested which creates pressure of intestine contents

50

What are hemorrhoids

Branches of the rectal vein are enlarged by putting pressure on the delicate rectal tissue