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What has to happen to air before it reaches the lungs

Air is cleansed of dirt, warmed to body temp, and moistened

1

Spaces in bones of skull opening into nasal cavity

Paranasal sinuses

2

Conducts air in and out and prevents foreign objects from entering trachea

Larynx

3

Name the sets of vocal cords and differ between two

False vocal cords-do not produce sound
True vocal cords-produce sound

4

Name and define the properties of sound

Loudness-force when air is expelled from lungs
Pitch-changes as vocal cords vary in length
Quality-formed as a result of vibrations occurring in nose, throat, thorax

5

Flap like structure that covers opening into larynx during swallowing

Epiglottis

6

purpose of ciliates mucus membrane

Lines inner wall and moves particles upward to pharynx

7

Purpose of the cartilage rings

To prevent trachea from collapsing

8

Right and left branch arising from trachea

Primary bronchi

9

Branches of the primary bronchi

Secondary bronchi

10

Finer tubes branches from bronchi

Bronchioles

11

Cluster of small air sacs

Alveoli

12

Separates right and left lung and diaphragm and the thoracic cage encloses them

Mediastinum

13

Differ between visceral pleura and parietal pleura

V.P attaches to lungs surface
P.P lines thoracic cavity

14

Attraction of water molecules on the moist inner surface of alveoli

Surface tension

15

Lipoprotein secreted into alveolar spaces to reduce the chance of collapse

Surfactant

16

Device that measures volume of air that moves in or out of lungs

Spirometer

17

1 inspiration plus the following expiration

Respiratory cycle

18

Volume of air that enters or leaves during a single respiratory cycle (500ml)

Tidal volume

19

Volume of air that Can be inhaled in excess of tidal volume (3000ml)

Inspiratory reserve volume

20

Volume of air that can be exhaled in excess of tidal volume (1100ml)

Expiration reserve volume

21

Volume of air remaining in lungs after deepest expiration (1200ml)

Residual volume

22

State four factors that affect breathing

Respiratory center in brain stem
Chemicals in body fluids
Inflation reflex helps regulate depth of breathing
Emotional upset can alter normal breathing

23

Breathing rapidly and deeply

Hyperventilation

24

What makes up the respiratory membrane

Alveolar and capillary walls

25

Explain the causes of gases to diffuse

Gases diffuse from high partial pressure to lower partial pressure
Oxygen diffuses from alveolar air into blood
CO2 diffuses from blood into alveolar air

26

3 things that will cause more oxygen to by released

CO2 increases, blood becomes more acidic, blood temp rises

27

Deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissue

Hypoxia

28

3 ways co2 gets transported

Plasma, bound to hemoglobin, and as a bicarbonate ion (hco3)

29

Most efficient way to transport co2

Bicarbonate ions