Chapter 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (63):
0

What has to happen to air before it reaches the lungs

Air is cleansed of dirt, warmed to body temp, and moistened

1

Spaces in bones of skull opening into nasal cavity

Paranasal sinuses

2

Conducts air in and out and prevents foreign objects from entering trachea

Larynx

3

Name the sets of vocal cords and differ between two

False vocal cords-do not produce sound
True vocal cords-produce sound

4

Name and define the properties of sound

Loudness-force when air is expelled from lungs
Pitch-changes as vocal cords vary in length
Quality-formed as a result of vibrations occurring in nose, throat, thorax

5

Flap like structure that covers opening into larynx during swallowing

Epiglottis

6

purpose of ciliates mucus membrane

Lines inner wall and moves particles upward to pharynx

7

Purpose of the cartilage rings

To prevent trachea from collapsing

8

Right and left branch arising from trachea

Primary bronchi

9

Branches of the primary bronchi

Secondary bronchi

10

Finer tubes branches from bronchi

Bronchioles

11

Cluster of small air sacs

Alveoli

12

Separates right and left lung and diaphragm and the thoracic cage encloses them

Mediastinum

13

Differ between visceral pleura and parietal pleura

V.P attaches to lungs surface
P.P lines thoracic cavity

14

Attraction of water molecules on the moist inner surface of alveoli

Surface tension

15

Lipoprotein secreted into alveolar spaces to reduce the chance of collapse

Surfactant

16

Device that measures volume of air that moves in or out of lungs

Spirometer

17

1 inspiration plus the following expiration

Respiratory cycle

18

Volume of air that enters or leaves during a single respiratory cycle (500ml)

Tidal volume

19

Volume of air that Can be inhaled in excess of tidal volume (3000ml)

Inspiratory reserve volume

20

Volume of air that can be exhaled in excess of tidal volume (1100ml)

Expiration reserve volume

21

Volume of air remaining in lungs after deepest expiration (1200ml)

Residual volume

22

State four factors that affect breathing

Respiratory center in brain stem
Chemicals in body fluids
Inflation reflex helps regulate depth of breathing
Emotional upset can alter normal breathing

23

Breathing rapidly and deeply

Hyperventilation

24

What makes up the respiratory membrane

Alveolar and capillary walls

25

Explain the causes of gases to diffuse

Gases diffuse from high partial pressure to lower partial pressure
Oxygen diffuses from alveolar air into blood
CO2 diffuses from blood into alveolar air

26

3 things that will cause more oxygen to by released

CO2 increases, blood becomes more acidic, blood temp rises

27

Deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissue

Hypoxia

28

3 ways co2 gets transported

Plasma, bound to hemoglobin, and as a bicarbonate ion (hco3)

29

Most efficient way to transport co2

Bicarbonate ions

30

Atmospheric pressure forces air into lungs

Inspiration

31

Pressure inside lungs and alveoli decrease

Inspiration

32

Alveoli pressure falls when diaphragm moves downward

Inspiration

33

Thoracic cage moves up and outward

Inspiration

34

Surface tension

Inspiration

35

Surfactant

Inspiration

36

Elastic recoil of tissue

Expiration

37

Surface tension in alveoli provide the force of

Expiration

38

Thoracic and abdominal wall muscle aid

Expiration

39

Abdominal organs spring back into previous shapes, pushing diaphragm upward

Expiration

40

Passive process

Expiration

41

What happens to the Nasal septum

Straight at birth then as a person grows older, it bends to one side

42

Painful sinus headaches are the result of

Blocked drainage caused by infection or allergic reaction

43

Damage to the nerves that supply the laryngeal muscles can do what

Alter the quality of a persons voice

44

What is laryngitis

Mucous membrane of the larynx becomes inflamed/swollen due to infection or irritation from inhaled vapors and prevents vocal cross from vibrating as freely as before

45

How do one control laryngitis

Inserting a tube into trachea through nose or mouth can restore

46

What is surfactant

Newborns lungs inflate for the first time

47

Why do premature infants suffer respiratory distress syndrome

Don't produce sufficient surfactant

48

How do infants with respiratory distress syndrome survive

They drip synthetic surfactant into tiny lungs through an endotracheal tube

49

What is pneumothorax

A puncture in thoracic wall allows atmospheric air to enter pleural cavity and creates a real space between the membranes

50

What is emphysema

Disease that destroys alveolar walls
Decreases surface area of the respiratory membrane and reduces the volume of gases that can be exchanged through the membrane

51

What is lung cancer

Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that rob normal cells of nutrients and oxygen

52

Cancers that begun in the lungs

Primary pulmonary cancers

53

Nonrespiratory movements

Sneeze, laughing, hiccup, yawning, coughing

54

What does spirometer measure

Emphysema, pneumonia, and lung cancer

55

What does adding co2 to air stimulates

Rate and depth of breathing

56

Ordinary air co2

.04%

57

What causes hyperventilation

Lowered co2 concentration followed by a rise in pH and decreased blood flow to brain cells

58

How can one determine breath analysis

Respiratory membrane is normally so thin that other chemicals other than co2 can diffuse into alveolar air and be exhaled

59

What happens to the balloons when the rubber sheeting is pulled downward

The balloons inflate with air

60

What happens when the sheeting is pushed upward

The balloons deflate with air

61

When a person hyperventilated in fresh air does her co2 content decrease or increase

Decrease

62

What is cystic fibrosis

Thick, sticky Mucus builds up extremely and blocks airways making it hard to breathe