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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (173):
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Stomach

Abdominal cavity

1

Esophagus

Thoracic cavity

2

Spinal cord

Vertebral cavity

3

Urinary bladder

Pelvic cavity

4

Small intestine

Abdominal cavity

5

Trachea

Thoracic cavity

6

Lungs

Thoracic cavity

7

Kidneys

Abdominal cavity

8

Heart

Thoracic cavity

9

Brain

Cranial cavity

10

Spleen

Abdominal cavity

11

Liver

Abdominal cavity

12

Name the 11 systems of the body

Integumentary
Muscular
Urinary
Reproduction
Digestive
Lymphatic
Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Nervous
Endocrine
Skeletal

13

Name 5 levels of organization that comprise the body

Chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, system level

14

Why is it important to use the technical terms when studying anatomy

Universal terms. Everybody knows them by technical terms

15

5 requirements of organisms

Water food oxygen heat pressure

16

Explain the following statement: the science of anatomy isn't solely a visual science

Anatomy is hands on. Requires the sense to determine all parts are how they should be. Uses sight, touch, sound, and sometimes smell

17

Think of a person who has a chronic ongoing illness. Explain how changes in anatomy in that person are associated with changes in physiology

Lung cancer takes over body and lungs won't work. Compensate for lack of oxygen, the other lung will increase its work load. Deals with the functions

18

In which of the 4 primary tissues is cancer likely to appear and why

Epithelial tissue- covers the skin, most exposed to toxins, replicate fast

19

Differentiate between exocrine and endocrine glands

Exocrine-secrets into ducts
Endocrine-secrets into the blood of tissue fluids

20

Explain why physical characteristics of the various connective tissue differ so much

Functions determine how they physically look. Look different to perform different tasks (shape and look-form functions)

21

Which muscle tissue is voluntary and which are involuntary

Voluntary-skeletal
Involuntary-cardiac and smooth

22

How do you explain the fact that joint injuries awe often very slow to heal

There's no blood there. No circulation of blood flow-longer to heal

23

Nerve fibers are scattered throughout

Dermis

24

Only the deepest layer of this region an divide

Epidermis

25

Lacks blood vessels

Epidermis

26

Consists of loose connective tissue and adipose

Subcutaneous

27

Located beneath the 2nd region

Subcutaneous

28

Contains the pigment which gives skin it's color

Epidermis

29

Outermost layer is dead cells

Epidermis

30

Binds the 1st region to underlying tissue

Dermis

31

Contains the major blood vessels that supply the skin and adipose tissue

Subcutaneous

32

Deepest layer is the only living layer of this region

Epidermis

33

Differ between endocrine and apocrine sweat glands

Eccrine- responds to elevated temp
Apocrine- responds to emotional stress chair follicles

34

Distinguish between the activities necessary to heal a wound in the epidermis and those necessary to heal in the dermis

Epidermis-3 layers of epidermis are dead so wound doesn't hurt, dividing epithelial cells will fill in wound openings
Dermis- blood clot will form to stop bleeding- leads to scab

35

5 functions of the skin

Protection, regulates temp, slows water loss, makes chemicals, and excretes wastes

36

Explain ABCD reference to examination of pigmented areas

Pigmented areas are assymetric, irregular boarders, vary in color, diameter greater than 6mm than its cancerous

37

How does inflammation help a wound heal

Blood vessels dilate which gives the wound nutrients and oxygen

38

Why is skin defined as an organ

Major portion of body and contains major blood vessels that help regulate temp. Contains loose and adipose tissues, protects body, holds everything in place, group of tissues working together

39

Burns in epidermis layer, not painful. Will be red and tender

1 degree

40

Burns through epidermis and into the dermis. Painful because nerves in dermis layer are irritated. Red and have blisters

2 degree

41

Burns through all layers of skin- charring skin and very painful

3 degree

42

What is the vitamin our skin produces and what is it used for

Vitamin D
Builds good strong bones

43

How is skin peeling after a severe sunburn protective

Keeps you from getting skin cancer

44

2 types of bone tissue

Spongy and compact bone

45

4 functions of bones

Support and protect, body movement, blood cell formation, and storage of inorganic

46

What are 3 causes of flat feet

Poor prenatal nutrition, excessive overweight, and fatigue

47

Differentiate between intramembranous and endochondral bone development

Intra-flat skull bones developed from layers of connective tissue membrane
Endo-most of bones develop from masses of hyaline and cartilage

48

3 main categories of joints and the amount of movement exhibited by each

Fibrous- no movement
Cartilaginous- limited movement
Synovial- free movement

49

Last 2 pair of ribs

Floating ribs

50

First 7 pair of ribs called

True ribs

51

8,9,10 pair of ribs called

False ribs

52

Differ between yellow and red bone marrow

Red-develops red cells, white cells, and platelets
Yellow-stores fat

53

How does the structure of a bone make it strong yet light weight

Compact of a bone makes it strong. Very dense and solid. Spongy helps absorb calcium and nutrients-light weight yet strong

54

Explain how bones help out when blood calcium is high and when it's low

Low-osteoclasts breakdown bone, releasing calcium salts
High-osteoclasts form bone tissue and store calcium salts

55

Explain arthroscopy

Magnifying joints in body. Make 3 holes in joints to figure problem

56

Hip fracture is 1 of the most serious causes of hospitalization among elderly. Where is the most common site of hip fracture

Neck of the femur breaks off

57

What age does bone mass peak and what should be done to reduce bone loss after this age

35. Drink calcium and exercise

58

Looking at an X ray how can you tell if a particular long bone has finished growing in length

Epiphyseal plates are ossified

59

What causes lactic acid to form in muscle

During strenuous exercise oxygen deficiency causes lactic acid to accumulate

60

What specifically produces the striations seen on muscles

Alternating pattern of actin and myosin

61

3 cause of muscle fatigue

Lactic acid
Lack of blood supply
Lack of acetylcholine

62

What's the advantage of having both hemoglobin and myoglobin in muscles

Reduces the needs of muscles to have continuous blood supply

63

5 factors that limit muscle endurance

Loss of glycogen
Loss of fat reserves
Lack of oxygen
Lack of acetylcholine
Lack of blood supply
Heat built up

64

3 groups of muscle fuels starting with best

Carbohydrates-primary
Fat-secondary
Protein-third

65

Name 6 criteria

Size
Shape
Location
Attachments
Action
Direction of fibers

66

How does botulism actually effect the muscular system

Prevents the release of acetylcholine which is needed for muscle movement

67

What steps might be taken to minimize atrophy of skeletal muscles in patients who are confined for prolonged time

Get patient out of bed, do exercises, stretching out muscles so atrophy doesn't continue

68

As lactic acid and other substances accumulate in an active muscle, they tend to stimulate pain receptors and the muscle may feel sore. How might the application of heat help to relieve such soreness

When muscles are heated they're longer, more relaxed. Helps blood flow through body

69

3 general functions of nervous system

Sensory function
Motor neuron
Integrated function

70

3 meninges

Dura mater
Pia mater
Arachnoid

71

Explain 1 inside change in body and outside that brings reflex

Inside-vomit doesn't digest food and stomach reflexes and makes person vomit
Outside-eye constricting doc shines light in eye=constrict

72

2 major subdivisions of the nervous system and the organs in each

Central nervous system-brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system-nerves

73

Advantage of having convolutions

Pack more info into our brain

74

3 kinds of neurons based on function

Sensory neuron
Inter neuron
Motor neuron

75

2 functions of cerebrospinal fluid

Maintains stable ion concentration
Protects brain and spinal cord by being shock absorbing

76

Difference in location of gray and white matter in brain compared to the spinal cord

Brain- central core is white matter surrounded by gray
Spinal cord p- central core is gray matter surrounded by white

77

4 lobes of cerebrum

Frontal temporal parietal occipital

78

2 functions of the spinal cord

2way communication between brain and body
Spinal reflexes

79

3 kinds of neurons bases on structure

Bipolar
Multipolar
Unipolar

80

Certain local anesthetic drugs such as those used by dentists help to prevent pain. Explain how they prevent pain

Drug keeps ion movement at resting potential so the person doesn't feel pain

81

Provides attachment of ribs to thoracic vertebrae

Rib facets

82

Cylinder shaped unit of bone cells surrounding a central canal

Osteons

83

Fluid filled sac between joints

Bursa

84

Fibrous connective tissue covering outside of a bone

Periosteum

85

Bone destruction cells

Osteoclasts

86

Shock absorbing pad of fibrocartilage

Meniscus

87

Hollow chamber in diaphysis filled with marrow

Medullary cavity

88

Band of cartilage left between the 2 ossification centers

Epiphyseal plate

89

Junction of cranial bones

Sutures

90

Lubricating fluid between joints

Synovial fluids

91

Lines the medullary cavity

Endosteum

92

Any other bone forming cell

Osteoblasts

93

Pigment in skin which absorbs UV radiation

Melanin

94

Bundle of smooth muscle attached to each follicle that puckers when stimulated

Arrector pili muscle

95

Whitish halfmoon shaped region at base of each nail plate

Lunula

96

Oily mixture that helps keep skin and hair soft and waterproof

Sebum

97

Branch of blood vessels and cluster of fibroblasts that form in large open wounds

Granulations

98

Epidermal cells that produce the skin pigment

Melanocytes

99

Minute extension to increase surface area

Microvili

100

Supporting cells for neurons

Neuroglia

101

Connective tissue cell located near blood vessels

Mass cells

102

Connective tissue fiber made of very thin collagen fibers as a support network

Reticular

103

A bone cell

Osteocyte

104

Connective tissue fibers made of the protein elastin

Elastic

105

Connective tissue cell that is a scavenger and defense cell

Macrophage

106

Connective tissue fiber that has great tensile strength

Collagenous

107

Most common type of connective tissue cell

Fibroblast

108

Membrane covering lungs

Visceral pleura

109

Membrane covering the hearts surface

Visceral pericardium

110

Membrane that covers the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity

Visceral perineum

111

Combination of the 10 characteristics of life

Metabolism

112

Towards the front of the body

Anterior

113

Organs within a cavity

Viscera

114

Membrane that lines the thoracic cavity

Parietal pleura

115

Membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity

Parietal perineum

116

Body part that is closer to a point of attachment than another part

Proximal

117

Separates the thoracic cavity into 2 compartments

Mediastinum

118

Membrane that surrounds the heart

Partial pericardium

119

Body part is farther from the point of attachment than another part

Distal

120

Separates the thoracic from the abdominopelvic cavity

Diaphragm

121

When the resting potential becomes more positive

Depolarizes

122

Membranes surrounding and protecting brain and spinal cord

Meninges

123

Ridges on the surface of the brain

Gyri

124

Interconnected cavities within the brain

Ventricles

125

Bundle of axons

Nerve

126

Rapid change in potential of the membrane

Action potential

127

Filters incoming sensory impulses arousing brain into wakefulness

Reticular formation

128

Wave of action potentials

Nerve impulse

129

Junction between 2 neurons

Synapse

130

Shallow groove on the brain

Sulcus

131

Nerve cell

Neuron

132

Simple pathway that includes only a few neurons

Reflex arc

133

Thin layer of gray matter on the brain

Cerebral cortex

134

Deep groove on the brain

Fissure

135

Outer funnel like structure of ear

Auricle

136

Complex system of chambers and tubes composed of bony and membranous parts

Labyrinth

137

Spiral shaped canal which functions in hearing

Cochlea

138

When visceral pain feels as if it's coming from some other part of the body

Referred pain

139

Eardrum

Tympanic membrane

140

Three canals that provide sense of balance

Semicircular canal

141

Opening in wall of tympanic cavity which leads to inner ear

Oval windows

142

Contains the hearing receptors stimulated by vibes in the fluids of the inner ear

Organs of corti

143

Three tiny bones in the middle ear

Ossicles

144

Bony chamber between semicircular canals and cochlea

Vestibule

145

Function of enkephalins and endorphins

Body's natural pain receptors and used when body is in extreme pain

146

Name the 3 different locations of our taste buds

Surface of tongue, throat, roof of mouth

147

Give functions of ossicles, auricle, and Eustachian tube

Ossicles-transmit vibes to inner ear
Auricle- collects sound waves and passes them to the external auditory meatus
Eustachian-maintains air pressure on both sides of eardrum

148

What is the 1st part of the brain and pain impulses reach that make us aware of pain

Thalamus

149

4 primary sensations of taste

Sweet sour salty bitter

150

What is the only receptor in the viscera that provides sensation

Pain receptors

151

3 characteristics of sound

Light
Pitch
Quality

152

Differ between static and dynamic equilibrium

Static-maintains stability in head and body motionless
Dynamic- maintains stability in head and body in motion

153

Explain why referred pain occurs

Impulses from skin and viscera travel on a common nerve pathway

154

Even though the brain lacks pain receptors why does it sometimes feel as though a headache is coming from inside your skull

Brain doesn't have pain receptors but the meninges and blood vessels surrounding the brain do have pain receptors causing headaches

155

What is otitis media

Inflammation of the middle war

156

Why do more children get ear infections than adults

Eustachian tube in kids in more prone because bacteria doesn't have to travel very far up the tube in order to reach the ear

157

Motor neuron and muscle fibers it controls

Motor units

158

Red pigment in blood that carries oxygen

Hemoglobin

159

Fibrous connective tissue covering muscle

Fascia

160

Movable end of a muscle

Insertion

161

Forceful sustained contraction without even partial relaxation

Tetanic contraction

162

Attaches muscle to bone

Tendons

163

Neurotransmitter that stimulates a skeletal muscle fiber

Acetylcholine

164

Wavelike motion occurring in intestines to force contents along

Peristalsis

165

Muscle that assists the prime movers

Synergist

166

Recording of an electrically stimulated muscle

Myogram

167

Sheet of connective tissue which attaches muscle to muscle

Aponeurosis

168

Reddish brown pigment in muscle

Myoglobin

169

Fibers made of protein that play a role in muscle contraction

Myofibrils

170

Minimal strength required to cause a contraction

Threshold stimulus

171

Immovable end of a muscle

Origin

172

Muscle that resist the action of prime mover

Antagonist