Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

Honors Anatomy > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (43):
0

Nerve cells

Neurons

1

3 parts of a neuron

Cell body, dendrites, axon

2

Bundle of axons

Nerve

3

Supporting cells

Neuroglial cells

4

What is each nervous system? 2

Central nervous system-brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system-nerves

5

Name the general functions of nervous system

Sensory function
Integrated function
Motor function

6

Name functions of neuroglial cells

Carry phagocytosis
Provide insulating layers of myelin
Provide structural support and fills spaces
Covers and forms inner linings
Forms myelin sheath

7

Name neurons classification on basis of structure

Bipolar
Unipolar
Multipolar

8

Classification on basis of function

Sensory neuron
Interneuron
Motor neuron

9

Define resting potential

In a resting nerve cell, the potential difference between inside and outside of cell membrane (-70 mv)

10

When resting potential becomes more positive

Depolarized

11

Explain ion movement that makes action potential

@ threshold, NA ions diffuse inward, Depolarizes the membrane
@ same time, K ions diffuse outward, repolarize the membrane

12

Rapid change in potential (+30 mv)

Action potential

13

Wave of action potential

Nerve impulse

14

Differentiate conduct impulses

Un myelinated axons conduct impulses over entire surface
Myelinated axons conduct impulses faster because they jump from node to node

15

Junction between two neurons

Synapse

16

Groups of neurons that make 100s of synaptic connections to perform a common function

Neuronal pools

17

Neuron receives subthreshold stimuli and becomes more excitable to incoming stimuli

Facilitation

18

Differ between convergence and divergence

Convergence-impulses from 2 or more incoming axons may converge on a single neuron
Divergence- impulse from 1 axon that may diverge by passing into several output neurons

19

Simple pathway that includes only a few neurons

Reflex arc

20

What is reflex behavior

Automatic, subconscious responses to changes inside or outside the body

21

Membranes surrounding and protecting brain and spinal cord

Meninges

22

Name the 3 layers in meninges

Dura mater
Arachnoid
Pia mater

23

4 characteristics of spinal cord

31 segments
Cervical enlargement
Lumbar enlargement
Deep anterior groove and shallow posterior grooves extends length of spinal cord

24

Where is the gray and white located in the spine

A central core of gray matter surrounded by white matter

25

Functions of spinal cord

Provides 2-way communication systems between brain and rest of body
Center for spinal reflexes

26

Ridges on the surface

Convolutions (gyri)

27

Shallow groove

Sulcus

28

Deep groove

Fissure

29

Name the lobes of the brain

Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

30

Thin layer of gray matter on surface, contains 75% of all neuron cell bodies in nervous system

Cerebral cortex

31

Compare grey and white on brain and spinal cord

Brain-white matter makes up bulk of cerebrum
Spinal cord-central core of gray matter surrounded by white

32

Function of cerebrum

Provides highs brain functions:memory, reasoning, intelligence, personality

33

Function of olfactory bulb

Responsible for sense of smell

34

Interconnected cavities within hemispheres and brain stem

Ventricles

35

Function of cerebrospinal fluid

Protects brain and spinal cord by absorbing shock,
Maintains stable ionic concentration and
Provides pathway to the blood for wastes

36

Function of thalamus

Central relay station for incoming sensory impulses

37

Function of hypothalamus

Maintains homeostasis

38

Function of midbrain

Reflex centers associated w eye,ear, and head movements

39

Function of pons

Transmit impulses (cerebrum to other parts of nervous system) and regulates rate and depth of breathing

40

Function of medulla oblongata

Centers for cardiac, vasomotor, respiratory, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, vomiting

41

Filters incoming sensory impulses arousing cerebral cortex into wakefulness when significant impulses are received

Reticular formation

42

Function for cerebellum

Reflex center in coordination of skeletal muscle movements and maintenance of equilibrium and maintains posture