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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (34):
0

Layer of hyaline cartilage covering the articulating portion of epiphysis

Articulate cartilage

1

Fibrous connective tissue covering the bone

Periosteum

2

Tightly packed tissue in walls of diaphysis

Compact bone

3

Numerous branching bony plates

Spongy (cancellous) bone

4

Name two types of tissue that make up bone

Compact and spongy bone

5

Hollow chamber in diaphysis filled with marrow

Medullary cavity

6

Lines medullary cavity

Endosteum

7

Cylinder shaped unit of bone cells surrounding a central canal

Osteons

8

How are two bone tissues nourished

Central canal contains blood vessels that nourish the osteons.
Spongy bone also contains osteocytes, but no osteons and are nourished by diffusion

9

What are the different bone formations between two bones

Intramembranous bones are flat skull bones that develop from layers of connective tissue membrane
Endochondral bone- most of the bones developed from masses of hyaline cartilage

10

Bone forming cells

Osteoblasts

11

When osteoblasts are surrounded by the matrix and mature

Osteocytes

12

What is the difference from primary than secondary

Primary ossification center appears in diaphysis, while secondary ossification center appears in each epiphyses

13

Band of cartilage that is left between two ossification centers

Epiphyseal plate

14

How long do bones lengthen?

Long bones lengthen until Epiphyseal plates are ossified

15

Bone destruction cells

Osteoclasts

16

State the four main bone functions

Support and protect
Body movement
Blood cell formation
Storage of inorganic salts

17

What is the difference between the two bone marrows

Red marrow forms red cells, white cells, platelets
Yellow marrow stores fat

18

What happens when blood calcium is low? High?

When blood calcium is low, osteoclasts breakdown bone releasing calcium salts
When it is high, osteoclasts form bone tissue and store calcium salts

19

Junctions of cranial bones

Sutures

20

Three tiny bones in each ear (tiniest bones in human body; developed at birth)

Ossicles

21

Serves as attachment for tongue and not attached to any other bone

Hyoid bone

22

Soft spot of babies skull

Fontanels

23

Provides attachment of ribs to thoracic vertebrae

Rib facets

24

Name the three ribs

True ribs-first 7 pair
False ribs- next 3 pair
Floating ribs- last 2 pair

25

Shark ridge on a bone

Spine

26

Structural difference between male and female pelvis

Female coxae are lighter, thinner, and have less muscle attachment
Obturator foramen and acetabulum are smaller and farther apart on females
Female pelvic cavity is wider in all directions
Female sacrum is wider
Female coccyx is more movable

27

Name two main arches

Longitudinal (toe-heel)
Transverse (side to side)

28

What causes arches to fall or for people to have flat feet

Flat feet or fallen arches result from poor prenatal nutrition, excessive weight, fatigue, incorrectly fitted shoes

29

State 3 categories of joints and degree of movement

Fibrous joints-no movement
Cartilaginous joint-allow limited movement (between vertebrae, symphysis pubis, and ribs)
Synovial joints-allow free movement

30

Lubricating fluid between joints

Synovial fluid

31

Shock absorbing pad of fibrocartilage

Meniscus

32

Fluid filled sac between joints

Bursa

33

Name types of synovial joints

Ball and socket, condyloid, gliding, hinge, pivot, saddle joint