Chapter 15 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapter 15 Study Guide > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 15 Study Guide Deck (25)
Loading flashcards...
1

What were some of Darwins observations

An enormous number of species inhabit earth.

Some species that lived in the past no longer live on earth.

2

How did Darwin explain differences in shell shape of tortoises from Hood Island and Isabella island

Hood- Long neck and shell that is curved and open around the neck and legs.
Isabella- dome shaped shell and shorter neck

3

Darwin observed that small brown birds on the Galapagos Islands differed in the shapes of their ____

Beaks

4

What did Darwin think about on his journey home to England?

How the different characteristics vary from island to island of plants and animals

5

What did Darwin's journey give him the opportunity to do

See many species and islands

6

Similar habitats = _______

Similar species

7

Two scientists who helped Darwin and others recognize how old earth is were

Hutton and Lyell

8

What did Hutton and Lyell think about the earth

It was old

9

What ideas were proposed by James Hutton

Layers of rock are moved by forces beneath earths surface and most geological processes operate extremely slow

10

What is true about Lyells work

His work explained how awesome geological features could be built up or torn down over long periods of time, his publications help Darwin appreciate the significance of the geological phenomena that he had observed, he stressed that scientists must explain past events in terms of processes that they can actually observe

11

True or false? Lamarck was among the first scientist to recognize that living things have changed over time

True

12

True or false? Lamark proposed that all organisms have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection

True

13

How did Lamarck propose that species change over time?

By selective use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime. These traits could then be passed on to their offspring

14

How did Lamarck pave The way for the work of later biologists

He was one of the first to develop a scientific hypothesis of Evolation and realize that organisms are adapted to their environment – natural variation

15

What is true about Thomas Malthus

He was an important influence on Darwin and he believed that war, famine, and disease limit the growth of populations

16

True or false? When Darwin returned to England, he rushed to publish his thoughts about evolution

False

17

The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment

Fitness

18

Any inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chance of survival

Adaptation

19

Natural selection

Survival of the fittest

20

Explain what Darwin meant by the phrase survival of the fittest

Individuals that are better suited to their environment – with adaptations that enable fitness – survive and reproduce most successfully

21

The principle that all species were derived from common ancestors is known as _______

Common descent

22

What can evidence for evolution be found in

1. The fossil record
2. Geographic distribution of living species
3. Homologous body structures
4. Similarities in embryology

23

Darwin believed that all organisms on earth are united into a __________ by common ancestors

Single tree of life

24

The process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organism is called ____

Evolution

25

Natural selection is _______

Suited to their environment