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Flashcards in Vocab Quiz Deck (27)
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1

Phenotype

Physical characteristics of an organism

2

Genetics

Scientific study of heredity

3

Allele

One of a number of different forms of a gene

4

Homozygous

Term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait

5

Fertilization

Process in sexual production in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell

6

Gene

Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

7

True- breeding

Term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self pollinate

9

Genotype

Genetic makeup of an organism

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Gamete

Sex cells

11

Segregation

Separation of alleles during gamete formation

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Trait

Specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another

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Probability

Likelihood that a particular event will occur

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Independent assortment

Independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes

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Incomplete dominance

Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another

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Codomincance

Situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism

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Gene map

Diagram showing the relative locations of each known gene on a particular chromosome

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Hybrid

Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits

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Multiple alleles

Three or more alleles of the same gene

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Homologous

Term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent

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Crossing-over

Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis

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Heterozygous

Term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait

23

Polygenic traits

Trait controlled by two or more genes

23

Diploid

Term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes

24

Haploid

Term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes

26

Punnett square

Diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross

27

Meiosis

Process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell

27

Tetrad

Structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis