Chapter 16 - Chronic Health Conditions and Physical or Functional Limitations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Chronic Health Conditions and Physical or Functional Limitations Deck (17):
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ARTERIOSCLEROSIS

A general term that refers to hardening (and loss of elasticity) or arteries.

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ATHEROSCLEROSIS

Buildup of fatty plaques in arteries that leads to narrowing and reduced blood flow.

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PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE

A group of diseases in which blood vessels become restricted or blocked, typically as a result of atherosclerosis.

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OBESITY

The condition of subcutaneous fat exceeding the amount of lean body mass.

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DIABETES

Chronic metabolic disorder, caused by insulin deficiency, which impairs carbohydrate usage of enhances usage of fat and protein.

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HYPERTENSION

Consistently elevated arterial blood pressure, which, if sustained at a high enough level, is likely to induce cardiovascular or end-organ damage.

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VALSALVA MANEUVER

A maneuver in which a person tries to exhale forcibly with a closed glottis (windpipe) so that no air exits through the mouth or nose as, for example, in lifting a heavy weight. The Valsalva maneuver impedes the return of venous blood to the heart.

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OSTEOPENIA

A decrease in the calcification or density of bone as well as reduced bone mass.

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OSTEOPEROSIS

Condition in which there is a decrease in bone mass and density as well as an increase in the space between the bones, resulting in porosity and fragility.

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ARTHRITIS

Chronic inflammation of the joints.

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OSTEOARTHRITIS

Arthritis in which cartilage becomes soft, frayed, or thins out, as a result of trauma or other conditions.

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RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

Arthritis primarily affecting connective tissues, in which there is a thickening of articular soft tissue, and extension of synovial tissue over articular cartilages that have become eroded.

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CANCER

Any of various types of malignant neoplasms, most of which invade surrounding tissues, may metastasize to several sites, and are likely to recur after attempted removal and to cause death of the patient unless adequately treated.

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RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE

The condition of a fibrous lung tissue, which results in a decreased ability to expand the lungs.

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CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE

The condition of altered airflow through the lungs, generally caused by airway obstruction as a result of mucus production.

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INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION

The manifestation of the symptoms caused by peripheral arterial disease.

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PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE

A condition characterized by narrowing of the major arteries that are responsible for supplying blood to the lower extremeties.