Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science Deck (46):
HUMAN MOVEMENT SYSTEM
The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.
A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically deigned to provide a communication network within the human body.
The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment.
The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which products the appropriate response.
The neuromuscular response to the sensory information.
The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and movement.
The functional unit of the nervous system.
SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURONS
Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Transmit nerve impulses form one neuron to another.
MOTOR (EFFERENT) NEURONS
Transmit nerve impulses form the brain and spinal cord to effector sites.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
The portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body.
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distorting in body tissues.
Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.
GOLGI TENDON ORGANS
Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.
Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint.
The body's framework composed of bones and joints.
Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs.
Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs. Also known as an articulation.
Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column.
Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.
The process of resorption and formation of bone.
A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue.
A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation.
The end of long bones, which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production. They are also one of the primary sites for bone growth.
The shaft portion of a long bone.
The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. It is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs.
A dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane.
The central cavity of bone shafts where marrow is stored.
ARTICULAR (HYALINE) CARTILAGE
Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones.
Flattened or indented portions of bone, which can be muscle attachment sites.
Projections protruding from the bones where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.
A series of irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae that houses the spinal cord.
Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with the movement of the body.
Joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage.
Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement.
Series of muscles that moves the skeleton.
A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle.
The connective tissue that surrounds fascicles.
The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers.
Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force.
The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin.
The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation.
A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates.