Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science Deck (46):
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HUMAN MOVEMENT SYSTEM

The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.

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NERVOUS SYSTEM

A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically deigned to provide a communication network within the human body.

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SENSORY FUNCTION

The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment.

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INTEGRATIVE FUNCTION

The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which products the appropriate response.

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MOTOR FUNCTION

The neuromuscular response to the sensory information.

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PROPRIOCEPTION

The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and movement.

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NEURON

The functional unit of the nervous system.

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SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURONS

Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.

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INTERNEURONS

Transmit nerve impulses form one neuron to another.

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MOTOR (EFFERENT) NEURONS

Transmit nerve impulses form the brain and spinal cord to effector sites.

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CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

The portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.

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PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body.

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MECHANORECEPTORS

Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distorting in body tissues.

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MUSCLE SPINDLES

Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.

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GOLGI TENDON ORGANS

Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change.

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JOINT RECEPTORS

Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint.

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SKELETAL SYSTEM

The body's framework composed of bones and joints.

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BONES

Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs.

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JOINTS

Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs. Also known as an articulation.

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AXIAL SKELETON

Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column.

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APPENDICULAR SKELETON

Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.

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REMODELING

The process of resorption and formation of bone.

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OSTEOCLASTS

A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue.

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OSTEOBLASTS

A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation.

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EPIPHYSIS

The end of long bones, which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production. They are also one of the primary sites for bone growth.

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DIAPHYSIS

The shaft portion of a long bone.

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EPIPHYSEAL PLATE

The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. It is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs.

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PERIOSTEUM

A dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane.

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MEDULLAR CAVITY

The central cavity of bone shafts where marrow is stored.

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ARTICULAR (HYALINE) CARTILAGE

Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones.

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DEPRESSIONS

Flattened or indented portions of bone, which can be muscle attachment sites.

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PROCESSES

Projections protruding from the bones where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.

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VERTEBRAL COLUMN

A series of irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae that houses the spinal cord.

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ATHROKINEMATICS

Joint motion.

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SYNOVIAL JOINTS

Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with the movement of the body.

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NONSYNOVIAL JOINTS

Joints that do not have a joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage.

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LIGAMENT

Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement.

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MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Series of muscles that moves the skeleton.

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EPIMYSIUM

A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle.

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PERMYSIUM

The connective tissue that surrounds fascicles.

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ENDOMYSIUM

The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers.

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TENDONS

Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force.

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SARCOMERE

The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin.

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NEURAL ACTIVATION

The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation.

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MOTOR UNIT

A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates.

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NEUROTRANSMITTERS

Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.