Chapter 3 - The Cardiorespiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - The Cardiorespiratory System Deck (22):
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HEART

A hollow muscular organ that pumps a circulation of blood through the body by means of rhythmic contraction.

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MEDIASTINUM

The space in the chest between the lungs that contains all the interanl organs of the chest except the lungs.

2

SINOATRIAL (SA) NODE

A specialized area of cardia tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate; often termed the pacemaker for the heart.

3

ATRIOVENTRICULAR (AV) NODE

A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart, that receives heartbeat impulses from the sinoatrial node and directs them to the walls of the ventricles.

4

ATRIUM

The superior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into the ventricles.

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VENTRICLE

The inferior chamber of the heart that receives blood from the corresponding atrium and, in turn, forces blood in the arteries.

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STROKE VOLUME

The amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each contraction.

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HEART RATE (HR)

The rate at which the heart pumps.

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CARDIAC INPUT (Q)

Heart rate x stroke volume, the overall performance of the heart.

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BLOOD

Fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins, carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body, and also rids the body of waste products.

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BLOOD VESSELS

Network of hollow tubes that circulates blood throughout the whole body.

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ARTERIES

Vessels that transport blood away from the heart.

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CAPILLARIES

The smallest blood vessels, and the site of exchange of chemicals and water between the blood and the tissues.

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VEINS

Vessels that transport blood from the capillaries toward the heart.

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ARTERIOLES

Small terminal branches of an artery, which end in capillaries.

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VENULES

The very small veins that connect capillaries to the larger veins.

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

A system of organs (the lungs and respiratory passageways) that collects oxygen from the external environment and transports it to the bloodstream.

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RESPIRATORY PUMP

Is composed of the skeletal structures (bones) and soft tissues (muscles) that work together to allow proper respiratory mechanics to occur and help pump blood back to the heart during inspiration.

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INSPIRATION

The process of actively contracting the inspiratory muscles to move air into the body.

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EXPIRATION

The process of actively or passively relaxing the inspiratory muscles to move air out of the body.

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DIFFUSION

The process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body.

21

MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION (VO2max)

The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization achieved at maximal physical exertion.