Chapter 5 - Human Movement Science Flashcards Preview

NASM CPT > Chapter 5 - Human Movement Science > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Human Movement Science Deck (46):
0

BIOMECHANICS

The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces.

1

SUPERIOR

Positioned above a point of reference.

2

PROXIMAL

Positioned below a point of reference.

3

DISTAL

Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference.

4

ANTERIOR (OR VENTRAL)

On the front of the body.

5

POSTERIOR (OR DORSAL)

On the back of the body.

6

MEDIAL

Positioned near the middle of the body.

7

LATERAL

Positioned toward the outside of the body.

8

CONTRALATERAL

Positioned on the opposite side of the body.

9

IPSILATERAL

Positioned on the same side of the body.

10

ANATOMIC POSITION

The position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward. The anatomic position is of importance in anatomy because it is the position of reference for anatomic nomenclature. Anatomic terms such as anterior and posterior, medial and lateral, and abductin and adduction apply to the body when it is in the anatomic position.

11

SAGITTAL PLANE

An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves.

12

FLEXION

A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases.

13

EXTENSION

A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases.

14

HYPEREXTENSION

Extension of a join beyond the normal limit or range of motion.

15

FRONTAL PLANE

An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves.

16

ABDUCTION

A movement in the frontal plan away from the midline of the boy.

17

ADDUCTION

Movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body.

18

TRANSVERSE PLANE

An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves.

19

INTERNAL ROTATION

Rotation of a join away from the middle of the body.

20

EXTERNAL ROTATION

Rotation of a join away from the middle of the body.

21

HORIZONTAL ABDUCTION

Movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position.

22

HORIZONTAL ADDUCTION

Movement of the arm of thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position.

23

SCAPULAR RETRACTION

Adduction of scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline.

24

SCAPULAR PROTRACTION

Abduction of scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline.

25

SCAPULAR DEPRESSION

Downward (inferior) motion of the scapula.

26

SCAPULAR ELEVATION

Upward (superior) motion of the scapula.

27

ECCENTRIC MUSCLE ACTION

An eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening.

28

CONCENTRIC MUSCLE ACTION

When a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscle.

29

ISOMETRIC MUSCLE ACTION

When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle length.

30

ISOKINETIC MUSCLE ACTION

When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion.

31

FORCE

An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object.

32

LENGTH-TENSION RELATIONSHIP

The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length.

33

FORCE COUPLE

Muscle group moving together to produce movement around a joint.

34

ROTARY MOTION

Movement of the bones around the joints.

35

TORQUE

A force that produces rotation. Common unit of torque is the newton-meter or Nm.

36

MOTOR BEHAVIOR

Motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli.

37

MOTOR CONTROL

How the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response.

38

MOTOR LEARNING

Integration of motor control processes through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements.

39

MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

The change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan.

40

MUSCLE SYNERGIES

Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement.

41

PROPRIOCEPTION

The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements.

42

SENSORIMOTOR INTEGRATION

The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement.

43

FEEDBACK

The use of the sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning.

44

INTERNAL FEEDBACK

The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment.

45

EXTERNAL FEEDBACK

Information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness progressional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor, to supplement the internal environment.