Chapter 16: Ears Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16: Ears Deck (11)
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1

The 3 functions of the middle ear are:

-Conducts sound vibrations from the outer ear to the central hearing apparatus in the inner ear.
-Protects the inner ear by reducing the amplitude of loud sounds.
-Its eustachian tube allows equalization of air pressure on each side of the tympanic membrane in order to prevent membrane rupture.

2

The normal pathway of hearing is known as:

air conduction (AC)
-the most efficient

3

An alternate route of hearing is known as:

-bone conduction (BC)
-vibration of the bones of the skull is transmitted directly to the inner ear and to cranial nerve VIII.

4

The 3 types of hearing loss are:

-Conductive hearing loss: involves a mechanical dysfunction of the external or middle ear and is considered a partial loss because the person is able to hear if the sound amplitude is increased enough to reach the nerve elements in the inner ear.
-Sensorineural (or perceptive) hearing loss: indicates pathology of the inner ear, cranial nerve VIII, or the auditory areas of the brain. A simple increase in amplitude may not enable the person to hear.
-Mixed loss: a combination of both types of hearing loss in the same ear.

5

The infant’s eustachian tube is __ then an adult's; therefore it is ____.

-shorter and wider
-easier for pathogens from the nasopharynx to move through the Eustachian tube to the middle ear.

6

In the child, the top of the pinna should match an imaginary line extending from the:

-Corner of the eye to the occiput.
-Also the ear should be positioned within 10 degrees of vertical

7

Otosclerosis is a common cause of:

-Conductive hearing loss in young adults between ages 20 and 40.
-It is a gradual hardening that causes the footplate of the stapes to become fixed in the oval window, thus impeding the transmission of sound.
-The result is progressive deafness.

8

Presbycusis is

-A type of hearing loss that occurs with aging and is a gradual sensorineural loss caused by nerve degeneration in the inner ear or auditory nerve.
-Its onset usually occurs around age 50, and then slowly progresses

9

When using an otoscope for examination of an infant or child younger than age 3, pull the pinna:

-Straight down to match the slope of the ear canal

10

When using an otoscope for examination of an adult, pull the pinna:

-Up and back

11

What color of the eardrum is a normal finding?

-pearly gray