Flashcards in Chapter 24: Neurologic System Deck (35)
Major function of the Cerebral cortex—frontal lobe:
-personality, behavior, emotions, intellectual function, and voluntary movement.
Major function of the Cerebral cortex—parietal lobe:
-primary center for sensation.
Major function of the Cerebral cortex—temporal lobe:
-primary auditory reception area, hearing tase, and smell.
Major function of the Cerebral cortex—Wernicke’s area:
Major function of the Cerebral cortex—Broca’s area:
Major function of the Basal ganglia:
-control automatic associated movements of the body, such as the arm swing alternating with the legs during walking.
Major function of the Thalamus:
-the main relay station for the nervous system—sensory pathways from the spinal cord and brainstem form synapses here on their way to the cerebral cortex.
Major function of the Hypothalamus:
-a major respiratory control center with the following vital functions: temperature, heart rate, blood pressure control, appetite, sex drive, sleep center, stress response.
-anterior and posterior pituitary gland
regulator; and coordinator of the autonomic nervous system activity and emotional status.
Major function of the Cerebellum:
-motor coordination of voluntary movements, equilibrium, and muscle tone. It operates below the conscious level to coordinate and smooth out
Major function of the Midbrain:
-contains many motor neurons and tracts.
-merges into thalamus/hypothalamus
Major function of the Pons:
-contains ascending and descending fiber tracts.
-2 respiratory centers coordinate with main respiratory center injection medulla
Major function of the Medulla:
-It also has vital
autonomic centers (respiration, heart, GI function) and nuclei for several cranial nerves.
-the continuation of the spinal cord in the brain that contains all the ascending
and descending fiber tracts that connect the brain and spinal cord.
Major function of the Spinal cord:
-the main highway for ascending and descending fiber tracts that connect the
brain to the spinal nerves and mediates reflexes of posture control, urination, and pain response
What is the 4-point grading scale for deep tendon reflexes?
0 = No response.
1+ = Diminished, low normal.
2+ = Average, normal.
3+ = Brisker than average, may indicate disease.
4+ = Very brisk, hyperactive with clonus, indicative of disease.
What are then primary sensations mediated by the 2 major sensory pathways of the CNS?
Anterolateral (spinothalamic) tract: pain, temp, crude, light touch
Posterior (dorsal) columns: sensations of position, vibration, and finely localized touch.
What are the 3 major motor pathways in CNS?
What does the Corticospinal pathway do?
-voluntary movement, especially very skilled, discrete, purposeful movements, such as writing.
What does the Extrapyramidal pathway do?
-maintains muscle tone and controls body movements, especially gross automatic movements, such as walking.
What does the Cerebellar pathway do?
-coordinates movement, maintains equilibrium, and helps maintain posture. It functions at the subconscious level.
What are facts about the upper motor neuron?
- A complex of all the descending motor fibers that can influence or
modify the lower motor neurons.
-The upper motor neurons convey impulses from motor areas of the cerebral cortex to the lower motor neurons in the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.
-Located completely within the CNS.
What are facts about the lower motor neuron?
-The “final common pathway” because it funnels many neural signals here, and it provides the final direct contact with the muscles.
-The lower motor neurons translate movement into action.
-Located mostly within the peripheral nervous system.
What are the 5 components of a deep tendon reflex arc?
-An intact sensory nerve (afferent).
-A functional synapse in the cord.
-An intact motor nerve fiber (efferent).
-The neuromuscular junction.
-A competent muscle.
What're 3 tests of cerebellar function?
-Heel to shin: Have the patient slide there right foot down their left shin and vice versa. Their movement should be smooth and not difficult.
-Finger to nose: Have patient close their eyes and then touch their finger to their nose, alternating right hand and left hand.
-Finger to Finger: Have patient close their eyes and extend to touch their finger to your finger.
What are major symptoms to asses when collecting a health history for the neurological system?
-Head injury, dizziness, numbness, tingling, headache, difficulty speaking, weakness, tremors, seizures, incoordination, difficulty swallowing, patient-centered care, environmental and occupational hazards.
What method of testing is used for the sensory system assessments on pain, temp, touch, vibration, and position?
Pain: perception of a PINPRICK against the skin.
Touch: use COTTON to lightly touch the skin
Vibration: TUNING FORK over bony prominences
Position: have the patient close their eyes, move their fingers/toes up or down and then have them tell you which way you are moving them.
What are the vertebral level and corresponding reflexes? (5)
-Biceps reflex: C5 to C6.
-Triceps reflex: C7 to C8.
-Brachioradialis reflex: C5 to C6.
-Quadriceps reflex: L2 to L4.
-Achilles reflex: L5 to S2.
What are the components of the neurologic recheck examination that are performed routinely on hospitalized peeress being monitored for neurologic deficit?
-Level of consciousness
What are the 3 areas of assessment on the Glasgow Coma Scale?
PNS includes how many pairs of spinal nerves and how many pairs of cranial nerves?
-12 pairs of cranial nerves
-31 pairs of spinal nerves
-and all their branches