Chapter 16-Mammals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 16-Mammals Deck (102):
1

What term refers to an animal being capable of moving their bodies from place to place?

Motile

2

What term refers to an animal being attached to one location but are able to move the environment (air and water) toward themselves for the purpose of trapping food?

Sessile

3

Many living things possess the quality of:

Symmetry

4

What kind of symmetry can be cut in half in only one plane to make each half like the other?

Bilateral symmetry

5

What kind of symmetry an be cut in half in any way you wish, and you will always have the same shape on one side as on the other?

Radial symmetry

6

What kind of symmetry display great variation in form, changing shape almost constantly, and literally means without symmetry?

Asymmetrical

7

What division of animals are animals with a backbone?

Vertebrates

8

What division of animals are animals without a backbone?

Invertebrates

9

Vertebrates, which make up only about 3% of all animals, include the more familiar animals:

Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish

10

All vertebrates have an internal framework, or skeleton, called an ______________ made of bone or cartilage or a combination of the two.

Endoskeleton

11

What term refers to animals with four appendages or limbs attached by special bones to the body at the hips and shoulders?

Tetrapods

12

Modern evolutionists usually place vertebrates within a slightly larger group known as the phylum ___________________, which is made on the basis of embryonic similarities.

Chordata

13

Animals of the class ______________, are the most familiar and most dominant group of vertebrates on the earth today, are warm-blooded, have hair, and are provided with special glands for producing milk, has lungs, a four-chambered heart, a pair of limbs, and seven neck vertebrae.

Mammals

14

What kind of glands, as well as all glands of a mammal's body, are specialized epithelial cells.

Mammary glands

15

What term refers to an animal that regulates its temperature by internal mechanisms (altering blood flow, shivering, sweating, panting, etc.)?

Warm-blooded

16

What term refers to an animal that must regulate its temperature by external factors (such as lying in the sun when its body temperature is too low or cooling off in the shade when its temperature is too high)?

Cold-blooded

17

All mammals are considered to be:

Warm-blooded

18

Warm-blooded animals are said to be _______________, because the ability to regulate their temperature internally allows warm-blooded animals to maintain a stable body temperature regardless of their environment.

Homeothermic

19

Biologists characterize ______________ as living organisms that move from place to place in their environment, mainly for the purpose of obtaining food.

Animals

20

What is the special ability that mammals have where their body temperature falls within a degree or two of the freezing point, and their respiration and heartbeat slow as well?

Hibernation

21

Warm-blooded animals such as mammals need the efficiency provided by a ______________ heart.

Four-chambered

22

What are the flesh-eating animals that feed on herbivores?

Carnivores

23

What are the plant-eating animals?

Herbivores

24

What are the animals that are both plant-eaters and flesh-eaters?

Omnivores

25

As the fertilized egg moves through the oviduct toward the uterus, it divides many times, increasing the number of cells until it is a hollow sphere of cells, called a:

Blastula

26

In most orders of the placental mammals the region of implantation between the developing young and the tissues of the uterus will become the ____________, half of which will belong to the young and half will be the mother's.

Placenta

27

The embryo takes form when the blastula forms three distinct layers of cells called the ______________. From these three layers of cells, all of the body parts will be formed.

Primary germ layers

28

What are the three primary germ layers?

Ectoderm (outer layer),
Mesoderm (middle later),
Endoderm (inner layer)

29

What is the outer layer of the primary germ layer where the cells in it will specialize into the nervous system, sensory organs, and skin?

Ectoderm

30

What is the middle layer of the primary germ layers where the cells in it will specialize into muscle, bone, blood, lymph vessels, reproductive organs, and kidneys?

Mesoderm

31

What is the inner layer of the primary germ layers where the cells in it specialize to become the digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary bladder, and urethra?

Endoderm

32

During the embryos growth, it is surrounded by a fluid called the _______________. Thus fluid absorbs the shocks that are created when the mother runs or is bumped by an object?

Amniotic fluid

33

When the embryo is later in its development, when it is recognized as a young individual, it is called a:

Fetus

34

The entire period of growth from fertilization to birth is called the:

Gestation period

35

What is connects the fetus to the placenta that will be cut by the mother, freeing the newborn from the mother?

Umbilical cord

36

Mammals that bear their young Alvie and nourish them during development are called:

Viviparous

37

What kind of mammals do not bear their young alive?

Oviparous

38

What are the three major categories of mammals based on the way the developing young are nourished?

Placental mammals
Egg-laying mammals
Pouched mammals

39

What are the largest living land animals, and are the mammals with trunks?

Elephants

40

What are the enlarged incisor teeth of elephants, made of ivory?

Tusks

41

What are the dugongs and manatees often called because they graze like it, and can be seen in shallow waters of tropical rivers, lagoons, and sea coasts?

"Sea cows"

42

The echidna and duckbill platypus are the only ____________ in existence.

Oviparous (egg-laying)

43

What is the slowest land mammal, with a usual speed of 6 to 8 feet per minute?

Ai

44

What term refers to an animal that is active during the daytime?

Diurnal

45

What is the term that refers to animals that are active at night?

Nocturnal

46

What us pouched mammal referred to as:

Marsupials

47

What are the young marsupials raised in?

Marsupium

48

What is the largest living marsupial?

Kangaroo

49

What term refers to an animal that eats insects?

Insectivorous

50

What is one order of small mammals that gets its name from the insect-eating habits of its members?

Insectivorous

51

The smallest mammal is believed to be the:

Pygmy shrew

52

What are some examples of the pouched mammals?

Kangaroos,
Opossums,
Wombats,
Koalas,
Numbats

53

What are some examples of the insect-eating mammals?

Shrews,
Hedgehogs,
Moles

54

What is an example of the flying mammals, that spend longer periods of uninterrupted hibernation than any other mammal?

Bats

55

What are the two main categories of marine mammals?

Baleen whales,
Toothed whales

56

What kind of whales have two rows of comblike plates that hang like curtains from each side of the upper jaw?

Baleen whales

57

What is the world's largest animal, that may attain a length of 110 feet and a weight of more than 150 tons?

Blue whale

58

What kind of whales include such marine animals as sperm whales, killer whales, dolphins, and porpoises, and can be up to 65 feet long?

Toothed whales

59

The sperm whale's huge head contains a large amount of a waxy substance known as _________________, that was once used as a lamp oil, as a lubricant, and as a base for cosmetics.

Spermaceti

60

The sperm whale's intestinal tract produces a grayish, waxy material known as _______________ that is often found floating in tropical seas and was once used to make perfumes.

Ambergris

61

The sound produced by dolphins is sent through the ______________, a fatty organ in the bulge of the head.

Melon

62

What are the two rows of comblike plates that hang like curtains from each side of the upper jaw in a certain kind of whale?

Baleen

63

What are some examples of tree-dwelling mammals?

Apes,
Monkeys,
Lemurs

64

What kind of tree-dwelling mammals are primates without tails?

Apes

65

What kind of tree-dwelling mammal is the most familiar primates with tails, vary widely in size and behavior, possess a prehensile tail, and their nostrils are widely spaced?

Monkeys

66

What kind of tail do monkeys possess that is designed for grasping objects?

Prehensile tail

67

What kind of tree-dwelling mammals are an unusual kind of primate which live in only one area--Madagascar and nearby islands?

Lemurs

68

What kind of mammals are the small, gnawing mammals which have two pairs of sharp, chisel-like incisor teeth?

Rodents

69

What are some examples of rodents?

Mice,
Rats,
Capybaras,
Squirrels,
Woodchucks,
Gophers,
Beavers,
Porcupines

70

Rats are a grave concern to health officials, because rats carry diseases fatal to man such as:

Bubonic plague,
Food poisoning,
Typhus

71

What kind of gnawing mammal is the largest rodent?

Capybaras

72

What are the nocturnal animals of tropical jungles, that is about the size of a domestic cat, having a slender body, a long neck, and a doglike head, and is the longest-gliding mammal, that is able to glide several hundred yards at a time?

Flying lemurs

73

What kind of mammals have teeth similar to those of rodents, but have four incisors in the upper jaw instead of two, and are herbivores?

Lagomorphs

74

Three examples of lagomorphs are:

Hares,
Rabbits,
Pikas

75

What is the group of rabbit-sized, herbivorous mammals, look somewhat like short-eared rabbits, but their teeth are arranged differently than those of lagomorphs, and have hoofs on their toes and pads on the soles of their feet?

Hyrax

76

Some of the most valuable mammals to man are those whose toes end in _______________ (enlarged and thickened toenails).

Hoofs

77

Hoofed animals are called _______________, and scientists divide them into two groups, acceding to the number of ties that they have, and most of them have been designed as swift runners, because they need a means of escape from predators.

Ungulates

78

What is the group of ungulates that gave an even number functional toes?

Artiodactyla

79

What is the group of ungulates that has an odd number of functional toes?

Perissodactyla

80

What are three examples of odd-toed hoofed (Perissodactyla) mammals?

Rhinoceroses,
Tapirs,
Horses,
Zebras,
Donkeys

81

What kind of odd-toed hoofed mammal is a member of the equine family, and is a single-toed Perissodactyl?

Horses

82

Many artiodactyls have ____________, solid hornlike structures which are shed annually, and are bony elevations on the skull of the deer.

Antlers

83

Many artiodactyls have _____________, hollow structures which are usually permanent and thus not shed, and are composed of hollow sheaths of keratinize epidermal cells that surround a core of bone arising from the skull.

Horns

84

What term refers to the habit of hastily chewing and swallowing food which is later regurgitated and chewed more thoroughly?

"Chew the cud"

85

Animals which chew cud are _____________, which have a stomach that is divided into four sections.

Ruminants

86

What is the first and largest division of the four sections of a ruminants' stomach, which holds the unchewed food until it can be masticated thoroughly?

Rumen

87

What is the skin covering rich in blood vessels that covers the antlers, and is called this because if its appearance?

Velvet

88

What is the largest of all the deer?

Alaskan bull moose

89

What are three examples of artiodactyls?

Bovids,
Camels,
Deer

90

The domestic breeds of cattle are all different breeds of _____________, a name for wild cattle.

Oxen

91

The process used by microorganisms to break down cellulose is called:

Fermentation

92

In horses (Perissodactyls) and rabbits (lagomorphs), a special side pocket, called a ________________, lies near the stomach to provide for a fermentation chamber.

Cecum

93

The ruminants possess a special _______________ in which fermentation take place.

Four-chambered stomach

94

When the food is in the rumen, it is acted upon by a rich supply of bacteria and firmed into small balls called:

Cud

95

In general, _____________ lead a more active life than herbivores.

Carnivores

96

What are some examples of flesh-eating animals (carnivores)?

Bears,
Dogs,
Wolves,
Weasels,
Wolverines,
Cats,
Seals,
Walruses

97

What animal is considered the largest land-dwelling carnivore?

Alaskan brown bear

98

What is the name for the dog family?

Canine

99

What are the aquatic carnivores?

Seals

100

A type of animal or plant that is no longer found alive on earth is said to be:

Extinct

101

Types of animals and plants that still exist today but are in danger of extinction are said to be:

Endangered

102

An example of a controversial "endangered species" protected by the law is the ______________, a type of small owl that is fairly abundant in the western United States.

Spotted owl