Flashcards in Chapter 12-Disease and the Body's Immune System Deck (98):
What are the microscopic living creatures that cause disease and are commonly referred to as germs?
Scientists refer to any organism which causes disease as a:
What are diseases caused by invading pathogens?
What are diseases caused by factors such as aging, hormones, genetics, or nutrition?
What term describes a a disease that is severe, but only lasting for a short time?
What term describes a disease that is long-lasting or recurring disorder?
What are diseases in which tissues and organs gradually lose their ability to function properly?
What are diseases caused by malfunctions of the immune system?
What is the most common immunological disease that occur when the immune system overreacts to foreign substances such as pollen, dust, or certain foods?
What kind of diseases result when the immune system attacks the body it is supposed to protect?
Disorders which occur as a result of malfunctions of the endocrine system are sometimes called:
What kind of diseases occur during development in the mother's womb and are present at birth?
What kind of congenital disease results from genetic or inherited characteristics such as hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, and Tay-Sachs disease?
What is a type of nutritional disease caused by a lack of an essential nutrition, such as a diet low in vitamins, minerals, or certain other nutrients?
Deficiency diseases are caused by ___________, which results from a diet lacking one or more essential food elements?
What is the second-leading cause of death in the United States that results from the runaway growth of the body's own cells?
Although your immune system seeks out and destroys some of the out-of-control cells, a few may escape destruction and form a mass of rapidly reproducing cells called a:
What term describes a tumor that shows no tendency to spread through the body?
What are the four major factors that lead to cancer that together account for as many as 98% of all cancer deaths?
Smoke or drug abuse
What is the most important factor in treating cancer?
To treat cancer early, before it has spread
What is one of the greatest ways to reduce your risk of cancer? As many as a third if all cancer deaths result from not doing this.
Avoid Cigarette smoking
What is one if the greatest ways to reduce your risk of cancer? People who do this are half as likely to develop firms of cancer.
Eat a healthy, balanced diet with plenty of vegetables
What may help prevent cancer by keeping your body's systems in proper operating condition?
What is any condition which interferes with the normal functioning of the body?
What kind of diseases are those in which the invading microbe can be transferred from person to person (directly or indirectly)?
What kind of diseases are caused by microorganisms that are not transferred from one person to another?
What are the microscopic unicellular (one-celled) creatures that are some of the most widespread organisms in all of God's creation?
Algae, fungi, bryophytes, and all other plants as well as animals have _____________, cells which have a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-enclosed cell parts?
In what kind of cell does the nucleus lack a membrane, so instead the nuclear material is clumped in a dense region of the cell called the nucleoid?
Prokaryotic cells have small DNA circles called:
What term describes bacteria being capable of motion?
What are spherical-shaped bacteria which usually grow in clusters or chains?
What are rod-shaped bacteria?
What are spiral-shaped bacteria?
Bacteria are able to reproduce rapidly by what asexual process where one cell splits into two cells, each one being a new bacteria?
What kind of small bacteria reproduce only inside living cells, but are identical to other bacteria in structure?
What is thick-walled, protective capsule around its nucleoid and other key machinery and becomes inactive until conditions are again favorable for growth, and is also called an internal "life support" capsule?
What kind of bacteria live where air is present and obtain oxygen from the air?
What kind of bacteria live in the absence of oxygen?
What is the concept by Louis Pasteur that states that every infectious disease is caused by a specific germ?
Germ concept of disease
What was one of Pasteur's early discoveries that stated that fermentation is caused by microorganisms?
Who was the German physician who was experimenting with the bacteria he suspected of causing anthrax, a disease which was a great killer of cattle and sheep? He also came up with a procedure to determine if a particular bacterium is caused of a specific disease.
What is a scientist who studies bacteria called?
What is the name for the procedure that was formulated by Robert Koch, and is used for determining if a particular bacterium is the cause of a specific disease?
What are the four steps, simply put, of Koch's postulates?
1.Find the pathogen (in the animal)
2.Grow the pathogen (in a pure culture to identify it)
3.Inject the pathogens (into healthy animals)
4.Find and identify the same pathogen (in these animals)
What is the simplest way that bacteria harm the cells of the infected individual?
Stealing the cells' nutrients
Many bacteria cause harm by _____________ that damage or kill cells of the infected individual?
Producing harmful substances (toxins)
What is the term that describes a weakened virus?
What is a substance that stimulates the body to develop an acquired immunity to a disease?
What are three ways that bacteria cause harm?
Stealing the cells' nutrients
Producing harmful substances (toxins)
Turning body tissues into a battleground
What is a molecule of genetic material enclosed in a geometric protein structure called a capsid?
Huh are viruses reproduced?
Viruses are manufactured and assembled by infected cells?
What is a scientist who studies viruses called?
What kind of virus are RNA viruses that use their RNA to replicate viral DNA that is inserted into the host cell's own chromosomes?
What are single-celled animals that are responsible for several well-known diseases common in tropical regions?
What disease is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium, which is very common in tropical regions, and is estimated that as many as 150 million new cases of malaria may occur?
What are some examples of viral diseases?
What kind of infectious disease is carried by water droplets, such as those discharging during a sneeze or cough, but also during talking and singing?
What is an animal that transmits infection?
What kind of disease is almost always spread by sexual relations?
What are venereal diseases also referred to as?
STD's or sexually transmitted diseases
God's standards of ___________ are the best standards of protection from STD's.
When the pathogens which cause disease enter the body of a human and begin to grow there, that person is said to have:
What is the period of development that pathogens require before their presence produces signs, or symptoms, of disease?
What may occur when a disease spreads rapidly and extensively among a population?
What are four methods to stop the spread of many diseases?
Frequent hand washing
Avoiding unnecessary contact
Avoiding the contamination
Disinfecting the contaminated objects
Joseph Lister established the use of ___________, chemicals that kill bacteria and help prevent infection.
Diseases spread by vectors can be controlled by:
Avoiding or eliminating the vectors
What process can be used to prevent the spread of disease that injects a substance which stimulates your body to develop an acquired immunity to a disease?
What is the most important part of the immune system that are special cells programmed to search out and destroy any organism or substance that they do not recognize as part of the body?
White blood cells
What is a complex network of fluid-filled vessels and chambers that helps transport white blood cells throughout the body and aids the white blood cells in cleansing internal body fluids of pathogens?
What things are also known as leukocytes, and do the work of protecting your body against invaders?
White blood cells
Some white blood cells and mast cells also produce a chemical messenger called __________ when invading microorganisms or foreign substances are detected in your body, and this chemical causes blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable?
When a body cell becomes infected with a virus, the infected cells begin to produce a chemical messenger called ___________ which functions to limit the spread of the virus.
What are Y-shaped protein molecules that act like molecular "homing missiles" that are one of the most important weapons that your immune system uses to fight pathogens?
In what two ways do antibodies defend against pathogens?
1.Inactivating the pathogens until they can be destroyed
2.Marking them for destruction by other defense mechanisms
The body's cells are surrounded by ______________ which originates in the plasma of the blood, and provides the cells with an environment that helps maintain a proper balance of water and electrolyte concentration.
Tiny lymph capillaries collect excess fluid with its cellular debris and microbes and carry it through a closed system of:
The lymph vessels drain the tissue fluid, which is called ___________ once it enters lymph vessels, and eventually empty into the blood.
After lymph vessels collect lymph from several lymph capillaries, they converge into larger lymph vessels which empty into one of two large:
As the lymph is making its journey toward the blood supply, it passes through special enlargements of lymphatic tissue called:
What serve as "bases" and staging areas for white blood cells?
What two things are an accumulation of lymph nodes in the throat to protect that port of entry to the body?
While doing their job of filtering bacteria, the tonsils often become infected resulting in:
What are lymph node groups located in the intestinal wall of the lower part of the small intestine, and they protect that digestive area from pathogens?
What is the body's largest lymph organ, is about the size of your fist, and is located beneath the diaphragm just below the stomach, is soft and elastic, and holds a large volume of blood that can be placed into circulation when there is an emergency?
What is the one of the most inconspicuous lymphatic organs of the body, is located between the lungs above the heart, and serves as the center where immature T cells are matured and "trained" after being produced in the bone marrow?
What is an elevated body temperature that is an effective weapon against many bacteria, as well as against some viruses?
A condition of resistance to a particular pathogen is known as:
The immunity that results from circulating antibodies or memory cells in your blood stream is called _______________, because it is acquired as a result of a previous encounter with a pathogen.
Acquired immunity can be acquired by infections with the actual disease, by vaccine, or by _____________, which are blood extracts that contain antibodies against a particular pathogen and provide temporary immunity.
What kind of immunity is present when a baby is born and his blood stream contains antibodies from his mother's blood, and this temporary immunity helps protect the child from infection until his immune system is completely functioning?
Inborn or innate immunity
What type of immunity occurs because many pathogens infect only particular types of organisms?
What is by far the most prevalent immune deficiency that us caused by a virus known as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)?
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
AIDS is the prevalent immune deficiency disease caused by a virus known as:
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
What term can refer to any procedure in which chemical compounds are used to treat disease?
What are substances produced by bacteria, molds, and certain other organisms that are effective in stopping the growth of bacteria?