Chapter 12-Disease and the Body's Immune System Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapter 12-Disease and the Body's Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 12-Disease and the Body's Immune System Deck (98):
1

What are the microscopic living creatures that cause disease and are commonly referred to as germs?

Microbes

2

Scientists refer to any organism which causes disease as a:

Pathogen

3

What are diseases caused by invading pathogens?

Infectious

4

What are diseases caused by factors such as aging, hormones, genetics, or nutrition?

Noninfectious

5

What term describes a a disease that is severe, but only lasting for a short time?

Acute

6

What term describes a disease that is long-lasting or recurring disorder?

Chronic

7

What are diseases in which tissues and organs gradually lose their ability to function properly?

Degenerative diseases

8

What are diseases caused by malfunctions of the immune system?

Immunological diseases

9

What is the most common immunological disease that occur when the immune system overreacts to foreign substances such as pollen, dust, or certain foods?

Allergies

10

What kind of diseases result when the immune system attacks the body it is supposed to protect?

Autoimmune disease

11

Disorders which occur as a result of malfunctions of the endocrine system are sometimes called:

Hormonal diseases

12

What kind of diseases occur during development in the mother's womb and are present at birth?

Congenital diseases

13

What kind of congenital disease results from genetic or inherited characteristics such as hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, and Tay-Sachs disease?

Genetic disease

14

What is a type of nutritional disease caused by a lack of an essential nutrition, such as a diet low in vitamins, minerals, or certain other nutrients?

Deficiency disease

15

Deficiency diseases are caused by ___________, which results from a diet lacking one or more essential food elements?

Malnutrition

16

What is the second-leading cause of death in the United States that results from the runaway growth of the body's own cells?

Cancer

17

Although your immune system seeks out and destroys some of the out-of-control cells, a few may escape destruction and form a mass of rapidly reproducing cells called a:

Tumor

18

What term describes a tumor that shows no tendency to spread through the body?

Benign

19

What are the four major factors that lead to cancer that together account for as many as 98% of all cancer deaths?

Hereditary defects
Smoke or drug abuse
Viruses
Nutrition

20

What is the most important factor in treating cancer?

To treat cancer early, before it has spread

21

What is one of the greatest ways to reduce your risk of cancer? As many as a third if all cancer deaths result from not doing this.

Avoid Cigarette smoking

22

What is one if the greatest ways to reduce your risk of cancer? People who do this are half as likely to develop firms of cancer.

Eat a healthy, balanced diet with plenty of vegetables

23

What may help prevent cancer by keeping your body's systems in proper operating condition?

Excercise

24

What is any condition which interferes with the normal functioning of the body?

Disease

25

What kind of diseases are those in which the invading microbe can be transferred from person to person (directly or indirectly)?

Communicable diseases

26

What kind of diseases are caused by microorganisms that are not transferred from one person to another?

Noncommunicable diseases

27

What are the microscopic unicellular (one-celled) creatures that are some of the most widespread organisms in all of God's creation?

Bacteria

28

Algae, fungi, bryophytes, and all other plants as well as animals have _____________, cells which have a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-enclosed cell parts?

Eukaryotic cells

29

In what kind of cell does the nucleus lack a membrane, so instead the nuclear material is clumped in a dense region of the cell called the nucleoid?

Prokaryotic cells

30

Prokaryotic cells have small DNA circles called:

Plasmids

31

What term describes bacteria being capable of motion?

Motile

32

What are spherical-shaped bacteria which usually grow in clusters or chains?

Cocci

33

What are rod-shaped bacteria?

Bacilli

34

What are spiral-shaped bacteria?

Spirilla

35

Bacteria are able to reproduce rapidly by what asexual process where one cell splits into two cells, each one being a new bacteria?

Binary fission

36

What kind of small bacteria reproduce only inside living cells, but are identical to other bacteria in structure?

Rickettsiae

37

What is thick-walled, protective capsule around its nucleoid and other key machinery and becomes inactive until conditions are again favorable for growth, and is also called an internal "life support" capsule?

Endospore

38

What kind of bacteria live where air is present and obtain oxygen from the air?

Aerobic bacteria

39

What kind of bacteria live in the absence of oxygen?

Anaerobic bacteria

40

What is the concept by Louis Pasteur that states that every infectious disease is caused by a specific germ?

Germ concept of disease

41

What was one of Pasteur's early discoveries that stated that fermentation is caused by microorganisms?

Pasteurization

42

Who was the German physician who was experimenting with the bacteria he suspected of causing anthrax, a disease which was a great killer of cattle and sheep? He also came up with a procedure to determine if a particular bacterium is caused of a specific disease.

Robert Koch

43

What is a scientist who studies bacteria called?

Bacteriologist

44

What is the name for the procedure that was formulated by Robert Koch, and is used for determining if a particular bacterium is the cause of a specific disease?

Koch's postulates

45

What are the four steps, simply put, of Koch's postulates?

1.Find the pathogen (in the animal)
2.Grow the pathogen (in a pure culture to identify it)
3.Inject the pathogens (into healthy animals)
4.Find and identify the same pathogen (in these animals)

46

What is the simplest way that bacteria harm the cells of the infected individual?

Stealing the cells' nutrients

47

Many bacteria cause harm by _____________ that damage or kill cells of the infected individual?

Producing harmful substances (toxins)

48

What is the term that describes a weakened virus?

Attenuated

49

What is a substance that stimulates the body to develop an acquired immunity to a disease?

Vaccine

50

What are three ways that bacteria cause harm?

Stealing the cells' nutrients
Producing harmful substances (toxins)
Turning body tissues into a battleground

51

What is a molecule of genetic material enclosed in a geometric protein structure called a capsid?

Virus

52

Huh are viruses reproduced?

Viruses are manufactured and assembled by infected cells?

53

What is a scientist who studies viruses called?

Virologist

54

What kind of virus are RNA viruses that use their RNA to replicate viral DNA that is inserted into the host cell's own chromosomes?

Retroviruses

55

What are single-celled animals that are responsible for several well-known diseases common in tropical regions?

Protozoa

56

What disease is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium, which is very common in tropical regions, and is estimated that as many as 150 million new cases of malaria may occur?

Malaria

57

What are some examples of viral diseases?

Cold sores
Warts
Rabies
Small pox
Yellow fever
Poliomyelitis
Mumps
Measles
Influenza

58

What kind of infectious disease is carried by water droplets, such as those discharging during a sneeze or cough, but also during talking and singing?

Droplet infection

59

What is an animal that transmits infection?

Vector

60

What kind of disease is almost always spread by sexual relations?

Venereal diseases

61

What are venereal diseases also referred to as?

STD's or sexually transmitted diseases

62

God's standards of ___________ are the best standards of protection from STD's.

Abstinence

63

When the pathogens which cause disease enter the body of a human and begin to grow there, that person is said to have:

Infection

64

What is the period of development that pathogens require before their presence produces signs, or symptoms, of disease?

Incubation period

65

What may occur when a disease spreads rapidly and extensively among a population?

Epidemic

66

What are four methods to stop the spread of many diseases?

Frequent hand washing
Avoiding unnecessary contact
Avoiding the contamination
Disinfecting the contaminated objects

67

Joseph Lister established the use of ___________, chemicals that kill bacteria and help prevent infection.

Antiseptics

68

Diseases spread by vectors can be controlled by:

Avoiding or eliminating the vectors

69

What process can be used to prevent the spread of disease that injects a substance which stimulates your body to develop an acquired immunity to a disease?

Vaccination

70

What is the most important part of the immune system that are special cells programmed to search out and destroy any organism or substance that they do not recognize as part of the body?

White blood cells

71

What is a complex network of fluid-filled vessels and chambers that helps transport white blood cells throughout the body and aids the white blood cells in cleansing internal body fluids of pathogens?

Lymphatic system

72

What things are also known as leukocytes, and do the work of protecting your body against invaders?

White blood cells

73

Some white blood cells and mast cells also produce a chemical messenger called __________ when invading microorganisms or foreign substances are detected in your body, and this chemical causes blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable?

Histamine

74

When a body cell becomes infected with a virus, the infected cells begin to produce a chemical messenger called ___________ which functions to limit the spread of the virus.

Interferon

75

What are Y-shaped protein molecules that act like molecular "homing missiles" that are one of the most important weapons that your immune system uses to fight pathogens?

Antibodies

76

In what two ways do antibodies defend against pathogens?

1.Inactivating the pathogens until they can be destroyed
2.Marking them for destruction by other defense mechanisms

77

The body's cells are surrounded by ______________ which originates in the plasma of the blood, and provides the cells with an environment that helps maintain a proper balance of water and electrolyte concentration.

Tissue fluid

78

Tiny lymph capillaries collect excess fluid with its cellular debris and microbes and carry it through a closed system of:

Lymph vessels

79

The lymph vessels drain the tissue fluid, which is called ___________ once it enters lymph vessels, and eventually empty into the blood.

Lymph

80

After lymph vessels collect lymph from several lymph capillaries, they converge into larger lymph vessels which empty into one of two large:

Lymph ducts

81

As the lymph is making its journey toward the blood supply, it passes through special enlargements of lymphatic tissue called:

Lymph nodes

82

What serve as "bases" and staging areas for white blood cells?

Lymph nodes

83

What two things are an accumulation of lymph nodes in the throat to protect that port of entry to the body?

Tonsils
Adenoids

84

While doing their job of filtering bacteria, the tonsils often become infected resulting in:

Tonsillitis

85

What are lymph node groups located in the intestinal wall of the lower part of the small intestine, and they protect that digestive area from pathogens?

Peyer's patches

86

What is the body's largest lymph organ, is about the size of your fist, and is located beneath the diaphragm just below the stomach, is soft and elastic, and holds a large volume of blood that can be placed into circulation when there is an emergency?

Spleen

87

What is the one of the most inconspicuous lymphatic organs of the body, is located between the lungs above the heart, and serves as the center where immature T cells are matured and "trained" after being produced in the bone marrow?

Thymus

88

What is an elevated body temperature that is an effective weapon against many bacteria, as well as against some viruses?

Fever

89

A condition of resistance to a particular pathogen is known as:

Immunity

90

The immunity that results from circulating antibodies or memory cells in your blood stream is called _______________, because it is acquired as a result of a previous encounter with a pathogen.

Acquired immunity

91

Acquired immunity can be acquired by infections with the actual disease, by vaccine, or by _____________, which are blood extracts that contain antibodies against a particular pathogen and provide temporary immunity.

Serums

92

What kind of immunity is present when a baby is born and his blood stream contains antibodies from his mother's blood, and this temporary immunity helps protect the child from infection until his immune system is completely functioning?

Inborn or innate immunity

93

What type of immunity occurs because many pathogens infect only particular types of organisms?

Species immunity

94

What is by far the most prevalent immune deficiency that us caused by a virus known as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)?

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

95

AIDS is the prevalent immune deficiency disease caused by a virus known as:

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

96

What term can refer to any procedure in which chemical compounds are used to treat disease?

Chemotherapy

97

What are substances produced by bacteria, molds, and certain other organisms that are effective in stopping the growth of bacteria?

Antibiotics

98

What are three areas in which following God's instruction from the Bible leads to good health?

Attitude
The fear of the Lord
The foods that we eat