Chapter 12-Disease and the Body's Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12-Disease and the Body's Immune System Deck (98)
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1

What are the microscopic living creatures that cause disease and are commonly referred to as germs?

Microbes

2

Scientists refer to any organism which causes disease as a:

Pathogen

3

What are diseases caused by invading pathogens?

Infectious

4

What are diseases caused by factors such as aging, hormones, genetics, or nutrition?

Noninfectious

5

What term describes a a disease that is severe, but only lasting for a short time?

Acute

6

What term describes a disease that is long-lasting or recurring disorder?

Chronic

7

What are diseases in which tissues and organs gradually lose their ability to function properly?

Degenerative diseases

8

What are diseases caused by malfunctions of the immune system?

Immunological diseases

9

What is the most common immunological disease that occur when the immune system overreacts to foreign substances such as pollen, dust, or certain foods?

Allergies

10

What kind of diseases result when the immune system attacks the body it is supposed to protect?

Autoimmune disease

11

Disorders which occur as a result of malfunctions of the endocrine system are sometimes called:

Hormonal diseases

12

What kind of diseases occur during development in the mother's womb and are present at birth?

Congenital diseases

13

What kind of congenital disease results from genetic or inherited characteristics such as hemophilia, sickle cell anemia, and Tay-Sachs disease?

Genetic disease

14

What is a type of nutritional disease caused by a lack of an essential nutrition, such as a diet low in vitamins, minerals, or certain other nutrients?

Deficiency disease

15

Deficiency diseases are caused by ___________, which results from a diet lacking one or more essential food elements?

Malnutrition

16

What is the second-leading cause of death in the United States that results from the runaway growth of the body's own cells?

Cancer

17

Although your immune system seeks out and destroys some of the out-of-control cells, a few may escape destruction and form a mass of rapidly reproducing cells called a:

Tumor

18

What term describes a tumor that shows no tendency to spread through the body?

Benign

19

What are the four major factors that lead to cancer that together account for as many as 98% of all cancer deaths?

Hereditary defects
Smoke or drug abuse
Viruses
Nutrition

20

What is the most important factor in treating cancer?

To treat cancer early, before it has spread

21

What is one of the greatest ways to reduce your risk of cancer? As many as a third if all cancer deaths result from not doing this.

Avoid Cigarette smoking

22

What is one if the greatest ways to reduce your risk of cancer? People who do this are half as likely to develop firms of cancer.

Eat a healthy, balanced diet with plenty of vegetables

23

What may help prevent cancer by keeping your body's systems in proper operating condition?

Excercise

24

What is any condition which interferes with the normal functioning of the body?

Disease

25

What kind of diseases are those in which the invading microbe can be transferred from person to person (directly or indirectly)?

Communicable diseases

26

What kind of diseases are caused by microorganisms that are not transferred from one person to another?

Noncommunicable diseases

27

What are the microscopic unicellular (one-celled) creatures that are some of the most widespread organisms in all of God's creation?

Bacteria

28

Algae, fungi, bryophytes, and all other plants as well as animals have _____________, cells which have a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-enclosed cell parts?

Eukaryotic cells

29

In what kind of cell does the nucleus lack a membrane, so instead the nuclear material is clumped in a dense region of the cell called the nucleoid?

Prokaryotic cells

30

Prokaryotic cells have small DNA circles called:

Plasmids