Chapter 11-The Endocrine System:Glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11-The Endocrine System:Glands Deck (32):
1

What gland is located in the neck, slightly below the larynx?

Thyroid gland

2

What are four disorders of the thyroid gland?

Cretinism
Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism
Simple goiter

3

Where are the islets of Langerhans located?

Pancreas

4

What hormones do the islets of Langerhans produce?

Insulin
Glucagon

5

What is a disorder of the islets of Langerhans?

Diabetes mellitus

6

What hormones do the thyroid gland produce?

Thyroxine
Triodothyronine
Calcitonin

7

What kind if glands sit like small caps on top of the kidneys?

Adrenal glands

8

What hormones do the adrenal glands produce?

Epinephrine
Cortisol
Aldosterone

9

What kind of adrenal hormone enters your blood in increased amounts when you are excited or alarmed?

Epinephrine

10

What is the hormone epinephrine is commonly known as?

Adrenaline

11

What kind of hormone of the adrenal gland differs from other hormones in that they are not protein compounds but, instead, are special lipid molecules?

Steroids

12

What hormone of the adrenal glands is a steroid hormone, and stimulates the body to repair itself following an injury or stress?

Cortisol

13

What hormone of the adrenal glands is a steroid hormone, and stimulates the kidney to conserve sodium and secrete potassium?

Aldosterone

14

What are the reproductive organs?

Gonads

15

What are the reproductive organs in males called?

Testes

16

What are the reproductive organs in females called?

Ovaries

17

What is the hormone produced by the ovaries in females called?

Estrogens

18

What is the hormone produced by the testes in males called?

Testosterone

19

A primary function of the sex hormones is to promote the production of ____________: eggs and sperms.

Gametes

20

What is the time when a person is becoming sexually mature?

Adolescence

21

What are the changes in adolescence that include such things as the growth of hair on the face and body, a deepening of the voice in males, and an enlargement of the breasts in females?

Secondary sex characteristics

22

What is the gland that lies between the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, and its primary function seems to be the regulation of the body's waking and sleeping cycles?

Pineal gland

23

What hormone does the pineal gland produce?

Melatonin

24

What hormone triggers the autonomic nervous system to relax, slows the activity of the reticular formation, and causes other changes that make you feel sleepy?

Melatonin

25

What gland is embedded in the nasal cavity, and is sometimes called the "master gland" because it affects the other endocrine gland?

Pituitary gland

26

What hormones does the pituitary gland produce?

Somatotropin
Gonadotropins

27

What hormone of the pituitary gland is also called the growth hormone, and regulates skeletal growth?

Somatotropin

28

What is a hormone of the pituitary gland which affect the development of the reproductive organs?

Gonadotropins

29

What are some disorders of the pituitary glands' hormone, somatotropin?

Pituitary gigantism
Pituitary dwarfism
Acromegaly

30

What is a disorder of the pituitary glands' hormone, somatotropin, that happens when too much of this hormone is produced during the growing years and a person may grow seven to nine feet tall?

Pituitary gigantism

31

What is a disorder of the pituitary glands' hormone, somatotropin, that happens when too little somatotropin is produced during childhood and someone may develop into a well-proportioned little person?

Pituitary dwarfism

32

What is a disorder of the pituitary glands' hormone, somatotropin, where the pituitary gland produces too much somatotropin after childhood development, and the bones of the head, hands, and feet become enlarged?

Acromegaly