Chapter 9-Nutririon and Digestion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9-Nutririon and Digestion Deck (147)
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1

What are two types of simple carbohydrates?

Monosaccharides
Disaccharides

2

What is a simple sugar?

Monosaccharide

3

What are two monosaccharides combined?

Disaccharide

4

What is formed from a long chain of simple carbohydrates?

Polysaccharides

5

Polysaccharides, formed from long chains of simple carbohydrates, are _________,which are found in such foods as bread, cereals, pasta, potatoes, and rice

Complex carbohydrates

6

Plants store glucose as the polysaccharide:

Starch

7

What is a kind of starch that is manufactured by the cells of animals and man?

Glycogen

8

What forms the walls of plant cells, and is made of very complex chains of glucose?

Cellulose

9

Cellulose is an important component of _________, substances which are not digested or made into a part of our bodies.

Dietary fiber

10

What slows digestion and aids the stomach and intestines in the absorption of nutrients?

Soluble fiber

11

What helps move the undigested waste materials along to keep the intestines clean and healthy?

Insoluble fiber

12

What are the main source of energy for doing things?

Carbohydrates

13

What percentage of our total calorie intake should our carbohydrates be?

45-65%

14

Cereals, bread, potatoes, pasta, and rice, are rich in:

Starchy carbohydrates

15

What is the process whereby a substance is combined with oxygen?

Oxidation

16

Fruits, honey, and cane and beet sugar are rich in:

Sugary carbohydrates

17

Fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads and cereals, brown rice, dried beans and peas, nuts, milk, and seeds are the best sources of:

Carbohydrates

18

About half of the body's dry weight is composed of ____________, complex organic molecules used to build and maintain living cells.

Proteins

19

Proteins are made up of similar molecules called ___________, which are the building blocks of proteins.

Amino acids

20

What percentage of our Calorie intake should proteins be?

10-35%

21

What are the amino acids that our body does not produce, and must be obtained by the food we eat?

Essential amino acids

22

A protein that lacks any of the essential amino acids is often referred to as an:

Incomplete protein

23

Fats, oils, and fat-like substances are generally called _______, a varied group of compounds characterized by their insolubility in water.

Lipids

24

The most basic type of lipid molecule is the _________, a molecule of carbon and oxygen atoms attached to a long chain of carbon hydrogen atoms.

Fatty acid

25

In what kind of fatty acid is every possible bond to hydrogen occupied, and is said to be saturated because it cannot hold any more hydrogen atoms?

Saturated fatty acids

26

What kind of fatty acid is a hydrocarbon chain that possesses the ability to form one or more additional hydrogen bonds?

Unsaturated fatty acids

27

What is the term that describes an unsaturated fatty acid that has one additional hydrogen bond?

Monounsaturated

28

What is the term that describes an unsaturated fatty acid that has more than one additional hydrogen bond?

Polyunsaturated

29

What are the fatty acids that our body is unable to make and must be obtained from our diet?

Essential fatty acids

30

In cells, fatty acids are combined into larger molecules called __________, that consist of three fatty acid molecules attached to a single molecule called glycerol.

Fats