Chapter 9-Nutririon and Digestion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9-Nutririon and Digestion Deck (147):
1

What are two types of simple carbohydrates?

Monosaccharides
Disaccharides

2

What is a simple sugar?

Monosaccharide

3

What are two monosaccharides combined?

Disaccharide

4

What is formed from a long chain of simple carbohydrates?

Polysaccharides

5

Polysaccharides, formed from long chains of simple carbohydrates, are _________,which are found in such foods as bread, cereals, pasta, potatoes, and rice

Complex carbohydrates

6

Plants store glucose as the polysaccharide:

Starch

7

What is a kind of starch that is manufactured by the cells of animals and man?

Glycogen

8

What forms the walls of plant cells, and is made of very complex chains of glucose?

Cellulose

9

Cellulose is an important component of _________, substances which are not digested or made into a part of our bodies.

Dietary fiber

10

What slows digestion and aids the stomach and intestines in the absorption of nutrients?

Soluble fiber

11

What helps move the undigested waste materials along to keep the intestines clean and healthy?

Insoluble fiber

12

What are the main source of energy for doing things?

Carbohydrates

13

What percentage of our total calorie intake should our carbohydrates be?

45-65%

14

Cereals, bread, potatoes, pasta, and rice, are rich in:

Starchy carbohydrates

15

What is the process whereby a substance is combined with oxygen?

Oxidation

16

Fruits, honey, and cane and beet sugar are rich in:

Sugary carbohydrates

17

Fruits, vegetables, whole-grain breads and cereals, brown rice, dried beans and peas, nuts, milk, and seeds are the best sources of:

Carbohydrates

18

About half of the body's dry weight is composed of ____________, complex organic molecules used to build and maintain living cells.

Proteins

19

Proteins are made up of similar molecules called ___________, which are the building blocks of proteins.

Amino acids

20

What percentage of our Calorie intake should proteins be?

10-35%

21

What are the amino acids that our body does not produce, and must be obtained by the food we eat?

Essential amino acids

22

A protein that lacks any of the essential amino acids is often referred to as an:

Incomplete protein

23

Fats, oils, and fat-like substances are generally called _______, a varied group of compounds characterized by their insolubility in water.

Lipids

24

The most basic type of lipid molecule is the _________, a molecule of carbon and oxygen atoms attached to a long chain of carbon hydrogen atoms.

Fatty acid

25

In what kind of fatty acid is every possible bond to hydrogen occupied, and is said to be saturated because it cannot hold any more hydrogen atoms?

Saturated fatty acids

26

What kind of fatty acid is a hydrocarbon chain that possesses the ability to form one or more additional hydrogen bonds?

Unsaturated fatty acids

27

What is the term that describes an unsaturated fatty acid that has one additional hydrogen bond?

Monounsaturated

28

What is the term that describes an unsaturated fatty acid that has more than one additional hydrogen bond?

Polyunsaturated

29

What are the fatty acids that our body is unable to make and must be obtained from our diet?

Essential fatty acids

30

In cells, fatty acids are combined into larger molecules called __________, that consist of three fatty acid molecules attached to a single molecule called glycerol.

Fats

31

"True" fats are also called:

Triglycerides

32

Fats that are liquid at room temperature are called:

Oils

33

Products such as margarine and shortening, and most processed food are said to be made from:

Hydrogenated oils

34

What kind of lipid is used by our bodies to make bile, vitamin D, and important chemical messengers called hormones?

Cholesterol

35

What do our bodies store fat in and are found beneath the skin, around body organs, and between muscles?

Adipose cells

36

How much of our total Calorie intake should consist of fats?

25%

37

What are important organic substances which are found in plants and animals and in foods made from them?

Vitamins

38

Most vitamins serve as _________, special molecules that assist a cell's enzymes in performing their jobs.

Coenzymes

39

What are substances that neutralize harmful molecules called free radicals that would otherwise damage important cell parts?

Antioxidants

40

Which group of vitamins can be easily eliminated from the body, and consist of vitamin C and the eight B complex vitamins?

Water-soluble vitamins

41

Which group of vitamins can accumulate in the body if ingested in excess, consist of vitamins A, D, E, and K?

Fat or lipid-soluble vitamins

42

A disease caused by a lack of some substance in the diet is called a:

Deficiency disease

43

Processed foods to which vitamins have been added during the manufacturing process are known as:

Enriched foods

44

What condition occurs when one obtains too much of some vitamins?

Hypervitaminosis

45

Iron and iodine are called __________ because, though they are vitally important, they are needed in extremely small quantities.

Trace elements

46

Nearly 60% of the total body water is __________ (inside the body's cells) fluid.

Intracellular

47

What kind of fluid surrounds the cells, is found primarily in blood plasma, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, and the joints?

Extracellular

48

When the body tissues absorb extra fluids and cannot maintain the proper water balance, a condition known as _________ results.

Edema

49

The common unit for measuring the energy of foods is the:

Calorie

50

Many nutritionists now refer to Calories as:

Kilocalories

51

The sum of all body activities related to the use of food and oxygen is called:

Metabolism

52

Our metabolism rate is lowest when we are at rest; this rate is called our:

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

53

Being overweight or _______ is commonly a reflection of bad eating habits and insufficient physical activity.

Obese

54

A healthy way to lose weight is to reduce Calorie intake to __________ Calories per day, eat a diet high in carbohydrates and low in fats, and exercise regularly.

1500-1800

55

The organs of the digestive system form a tube that extends from the mouth to the anus. This tube is called the:

Alimentary canal

56

What is the changing of food substances with large, complex chemical molecules into substances which have smaller, less complex molecules?

Digestion

57

Digestion takes place in a series of small steps that are controlled by special proteins called:

Enzymes

58

What is any substance which brings about or speeds up a chemical change but is not used up in the process?

Catalyst

59

What are the enzymes which control digestion and are produced by tiny secreting bodies called digestive glands?

Digestive enzymes

60

Digestive enzymes are produced by tiny secreting bodies called:

Digestive glands

61

Inside the mouth, or _________, food is lubricated and ground and digestion has begun.

Oral cavity

62

The mucous membrane is kept moist and lubricated by a slimy substance called __________, which is composed mainly of a compound of protein and sugar and is produced by the membrane's special secreting cells.

Mucus

63

What separates the mouth from the nasal passages?

Palate

64

What part of the mouth functions to push food between the teeth and help mix the food with mucus and saliva?

Tongue

65

Once the food has been broken down by the teeth, it is formed into a small ball, or:

Bolus

66

Thousands of taste buds cover the tongue's exterior, arranged in tiny projections known as:

Papillae

67

What are the digestive glands of the mouth which daily produce 1 to 1.5 liters of saliva?

Salivary glands

68

Salivary glands daily produce 1 to 1.5 liters of sticky digestive juice called:

Saliva

69

What part of the mouth function to cut, break, or crush food into smaller pieces so that it may be more easily digested?

Teeth

70

What are the four kinds of teeth on each jaw?

Incisors
Cuspids
Bicuspids
Molars

71

What kind of teeth on the jaw are the four front cutting teeth?

Incisors

72

What kind of teeth on the jaw are the two tearing teeth which flank the incisors?

Cuspids

73

What kind of teeth on the jaw are the four light-grinding teeth that are arranged as a pair on each side of the jaw next to the cuspids?

Bicuspids

74

What kind of tooth on the jaw are the six heavy-grinding teeth that are arranged three to a side at the back of the jaw?

Molars

75

The last molar on each side of the tooth is called a:

Wisdom tooth

76

At times, wisdom teeth may erupt too close to the adjacent mold and become stuck, so that they fail to grow up through the gums; wisdom teeth in this position are referred to as:

Impacted

77

What breaks food into small particles, increases the surface area of the food and thus aids digestion?

Mastication

78

What are the general parts of the tooth?

Crown
Neck
Root

79

What consists mainly of blood vessels and nerves, and is the inner part of the tooth?

Pulp

80

What is the bonelike layer which surrounds the pulp and forms the bulk of the tooth?

Dentine

81

What is the mineral substance which covers the crown, and is the hardest substance in the human body?

Enamel

82

The root of the tooth is fastened to the jaw by collagen fibers and a bonelike substance called:

Cementum

83

The throat, __________, is a funnel-shaped cavity at the back of the oral cavity.

Pharynx

84

What is the term that is used for tooth decay, or cavities?

Dental caries

85

The tooth decay process begins when sugar mixes with, __________, a sticky, colorless film of bacteria that is constantly forming on and between the teeth.

Plaque

86

Any plaque which is not removed by daily brushing and flossing begins to build up and form a hard deposit called:

Tar tar

87

When plaque and tar tar accumulate, the gums become tender and inflamed and are likely to bleed easily when the teeth are brushed. This periodontal disease is known as:

Gingivitis

88

If gingivitis is left untreated, the infection can cause __________, a disease in which the gums detach from the teeth and eventually the bones supporting the teeth are destroyed.

Periodontitis

89

What is the foot-long, muscular tube which connects the pharynx with the stomach, and when you swallow, it takes over and you lose control of what happens to the food?

Esophagus

90

What is the rhythmic wave of muscular contractions of the esophagus and digestive tract?

Peristalsis

91

What is the small flap of cartilage in the pharynx that closes over the top of the windpipe as you swallow to prevent food from entering the respiratory tract rather than the digestive tract?

Epiglottis

92

What is the saclike, J-shaped storage structure of the body that has a capacity of about three pints?

Stomach

93

All the different liquids or juices that the cells of of the stomach create are combined to form:

Gastric juice

94

What softens foods, kills bacteria, and reacts with certain minerals, making them soluble so they can better be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine?

Hydrochloric acid

95

Peristaltic movements in the stomach in combination with gastric juice secretions reduce the semisolid bolus to a thick liquid called:

Chyme

96

What produces a greenish-colored substance called bile?

Liver

97

What is the greenish-colored substance that is secreted from the liver and stored in the saclike gallbladder beneath the liver?

Bile

98

Bile is stored in the saclike _________ beneath the liver.

Gallbladder

99

What are the most important components of bile that help with digestion of fats in the small intestine?

Bile salts

100

The linkage between the fat-soluble ends and bile-salt molecules break large droplets into smaller droplets, a process called _________, to expose a greater surface area for digestive enzymes to attack.

Emulsification

101

Bile enters the small intestine from the gallbladder through the:

Common bile duct

102

What produces pancreatic juice and secretes this juice into small intestine through the pancreatic duct?

Pancreas

103

What contains several important enzymes including pancreatic lipase, which digest fats; pancreatic amylase, which digests carbohydrates; and trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase, which act on proteins?

Pancreatic juice

104

The pancreas produces dissolved __________, which neutralizes the hydrochloric acid secreted by the gastric glands.

Sodium bicarbonate

105

What serves as the primary organ of digestion and absorption, is a long tube constructed of two layers of muscle; one layer runs lengthwise, and the other encircles the intestine?

Small intestine

106

What is the first ten inches of the small intestine?

Duodenum

107

What is the middle section of the small intestine?

Jejunum

108

What is the longest part of the small intestine?

ileum

109

What glands of the small intestine produce intestinal juice which contain several enzymes, including intestinal amylase, intestinal lipase, peptidase, maltase, sucrase, and lactase?

Intestinal glands

110

Food is made available to the body by ________, the movement of water, digested food, and other dissolved substances into the bloodstream.

Absorption

111

What are tiny, hairlike projections of the small intestine whose primary function is to absorb digested food?

Villi

112

What are the fine extensions of the cell membrane that give the villi cells a brushlike border that greatly increase their surface area?

Microvilli

113

In the center of each villus is another type of tubelike vessels called a ________, which are considered part of the lymphatic system, and eventually empty into the bloodstream.

Lacteal

114

Whenever the level of glucose in the blood falls below normal, the pancreas releases a hormone called ________ that signals the liver to convert glycogen back into glucose and release the glucose into the bloodstream.

Glucagon

115

If more proteins are consumed than the body needs to build and repair its tissues, the liver converts the excess amino acids into fuels the body can use and a waste substance called _________ that is removed from the bloodstream by the kidneys.

Urea

116

What is the saclike, J-shaped storage structure of the body that has a capacity of about three pints?

Stomach

117

All the different liquids or juices that the cells of of the stomach create are combined to form:

Gastric juice

118

What softens foods, kills bacteria, and reacts with certain minerals, making them soluble so they can better be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine?

Hydrochloric acid

119

Peristaltic movements in the stomach in combination with gastric juice secretions reduce the semisolid bolus to a thick liquid called:

Chyme

120

What produces a greenish-colored substance called bile?

Liver

121

What is the greenish-colored substance that is secreted from the liver and stored in the saclike gallbladder beneath the liver?

Bile

122

Bile is stored in the saclike _________ beneath the liver.

Gallbladder

123

What are the most important components of bile that help with digestion of fats in the small intestine?

Bile salts

124

The linkage between the fat-soluble ends and bile-salt molecules break large droplets into smaller droplets, a process called _________, to expose a greater surface area for digestive enzymes to attack.

Emulsification

125

Bile enters the small intestine from the gallbladder through the:

Common bile duct

126

What produces pancreatic juice and secretes this juice into small intestine through the pancreatic duct?

Pancreas

127

What contains several important enzymes including pancreatic lipase, which digest fats; pancreatic amylase, which digests carbohydrates; and trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase, which act on proteins?

Pancreatic juice

128

The pancreas produces dissolved __________, which neutralizes the hydrochloric acid secreted by the gastric glands.

Sodium bicarbonate

129

What serves as the primary organ of digestion and absorption, is a long tube constructed of two layers of muscle; one layer runs lengthwise, and the other encircles the intestine?

Small intestine

130

What is the first ten inches of the small intestine?

Duodenum

131

What is the middle section of the small intestine?

Jejunum

132

What is the longest part of the small intestine?

ileum

133

What glands of the small intestine produce intestinal juice which contain several enzymes, including intestinal amylase, intestinal lipase, peptidase, maltase, sucrase, and lactase?

Intestinal glands

134

Food is made available to the body by ________, the movement of water, digested food, and other dissolved substances into the bloodstream.

Absorption

135

What are tiny, hairlike projections of the small intestine whose primary function is to absorb digested food?

Villi

136

What are the fine extensions of the cell membrane that give the villi cells a brushlike border that greatly increase their surface area?

Microvilli

137

In the center of each villus is another type of tubelike vessels called a ________, which are considered part of the lymphatic system, and eventually empty into the bloodstream.

Lacteal

138

Whenever the level of glucose in the blood falls below normal, the pancreas releases a hormone called ________ that signals the liver to convert glycogen back into glucose and release the glucose into the bloodstream.

Glucagon

139

If more proteins are consumed than the body needs to build and repair its tissues, the liver converts the excess amino acids into fuels the body can use and a waste substance called _________ that is removed from the bloodstream by the kidneys.

Urea

140

What is the five foot long large intestine that lies on top of the small intestine and joins the small intestine from the side instead of end to end?

Colon

141

At the junction where the small intestine is joined from the side is a pouch, called the cecum, that possesses a finger like structure that had no known function in digestion, but does secrete mucus and may help the body fight infections. What is this called?

Vermiform appendix

142

When the appendix becomes infected it causes _________, a condition that often requires surgery.

Appendicitis

143

Feces are stored in the rectum until they are passed from the body through the:

Anus

144

An uncommon but very severe form of food poisoning is __________, caused by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.

Botulism

145

What is the common food infection caused when bacteria of the genus Salmonella get into your food and meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and shellfish are frequent causes of this infection?

Salmonella

146

What is a rare disease in the United States, is the most serious of the salmonella infections, and maybe acquired from food or water contaminated with the bacterium Salmonella typhi, and spreads throughout the entire body?

Typhoid fever

147

What is an open sore in the mucous membrane resulting from the breakdown of tissues, and often occur in the stomach?

Ulcer