Chapter 17 - Pharmacology, Drugs, and Sports Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 - Pharmacology, Drugs, and Sports Deck (139):
1

Pharmacology

branch of science that deals with the actions of drugs on biological systems, especially drugs that are used in medicine for diagnostic for therapeutic purposes

2

drug

chemical agent used in the prevention, treatment, or diagnosis of disease/pathology

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Pharmacokinetics

methods by which drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated or excreted by the body

4

pharmacodynamics

the actions or the effects of a drug on the body

5

inhalation

brings drug to respiratory tract

6

intradermal/subcutaneous

hypodermic needle injection

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intramuscular

gluteal area or deltoid

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intraspinal

anesthetization, withdrawal of spinal fluid

9

intravaginal

readily absorbed through mucosa

10

intravenous

immediate reaction to medication

11

sublingual /buccal

medicine dissolves in mouth and is absorbed by mucous lining

12

Inunctions

oily/medicated substances rubbed on skin

13

ointments

long-lasting topical medication

14

pastes

ointments with a nonfat base; spread onto cloth, usually having a cooling effect

15

plasters

thicker than ointments
usually an irritant applied as a counterirritant

used to decrease pain and inflammation

16

transdermal patches

patches with slow-release medications

17

solutions

antiseptics, disinfectants, vasoconstrictors

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drug vehicle

therapeutically inactive substance that transports a drug, a drug is housed in a vehicle that is liquid or solid

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liquid drug vehicle

aqueous solution, elixir, liniment, spirit, suspension, syrup

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solid drug vehicle

ampule, capsule, ointment, paste, tablet, plaster, powder, suppository

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absorption of drug determined by

chemical characteristics of the drug, dosage form, and gastric emptying time

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efficacy of a drug

capability of the drug to produce a specific therapeutic effect once it reaches the target tissue

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potency of a drug

dose of the drug that is required to produce a desired therapeutic effect

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metabolism of a drug

biotransformation of drugs into water-soluble compounds that can be excreted

mostly takes place in liver

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drug half-life

the rate at which a drug disappears from the body

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steady state

when the mont of the drugs taken is equal to the amount that is excreted

27

administer

providing a single dose of medication for immediate use by the patient

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dispense

providing the patient with a drug in a quantity sufficient to be used for multiple doeses

29

record keeping should include

name, complaint/symptoms, current meds,
known drug allergies, name of meds given,
lot number,
expiration date,
quantity of medication given,
method of administration,
date and time of administration

30

labeling requirements for drugs

name of the produce

name and address of the manufacturers, packer or distributor

net contents of the package

established name of all active ingredients on the quantity of certain other ingredients whether active or not

name of any habit forming drug contained

cautions and warnings to protect the consumer

adequate directions for same and effective use

expiration date and lot number

31

anesthetics

produce local or general numbness

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antacids

neutralize acidity

33

anticoagulants

prevent coagulation of blood

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antidotes

prevent or counteract effect of poison

35

antiprurtics

relieve itching

36

antispetics

kill bacteria or inhibit their growth

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antispasmodics

relieve muscle spasm

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antitussives

inhibit or prevent coughing

39

astringents

cause contraction or puckering action

40

bacteriostatics

retard/inhibit growth of bacteria

41

carminatives

relieve flatulence (gas)

42

cathartics

evacuate substances from bowels

43

caustics

burning agents (capable of destroying living tissue)

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counterirritants

produce an inflammatory reaction for relief of deeper inflammation

45

depressants

diminish body function or nerve activity

46

disinfectants

kill/inhibit growth of micro-organisms (apply to only nonliving material)

47

diuretics

increase excretion of urine

48

emetics

cause vomiting

49

expectorants

suppress coughing

50

hemostatics

slow down or stop bleeding or hemorrhage

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irritants

cause irritation

52

narcotics

produce analgesic and hypnotic effects

53

sedatives

relieve anxiety

54

skeletal muscle relaxants

depress neural activity within skeletal muscle

55

vasoconstrictors and vasodilators

constrict or dilate blood vessel

56

alcohol

inexpensive, non-irritating, kills bacteria immediately

antiseptic, anstringent

57

phenol

derivatives are more commonly used

58

halogens

chemical substances (chlorine, fluoride, bromine)

iodophors (combo of iodine and a carrier)

59

oxidizing agents

hydrogen peroxide (affects bacteria but readily decomposes in the presence of organic substances such as blood and pus)

doesn't work well as an antiseptic

60

most common fungi

epidermophyton
trichophyton
candida albicans

61

athletes foot

ketoconazole, amphotericin B

62

Griseofulvin

may become a functioning part of cutaneous tissue

63

antibiotics

topical dressings or systemic medications

64

penicillins / cephalosporins

antibiotics

interfere with metabolism of bacteria

65

bacitracin, tetracycline

modifies infection rather than getting ride of it

antibiotic

66

erythromycin

strep throat

antibiotic

67

sulfonamides

antibiotic

makes pathogens vulnerable to phagocytes

68

types of drugs for asthma

quick-relief meds

long term control

metered-dose inhalers

dry powder inhalers

69

quick relief meds for asthma

short-acting beta 2 agonists (albuterol-bronchodilator)

anticholinergics

oral corticosteroids

70

long term control meds for asthma

inhaled corticosteroids (prevent inflammation of chronic asthma), long-acting beta 2 agonists

71

drugs that inhibit pain and inflammation

counterirritants and local anesthetics

narcotic analgesics

nonnarcotic analgesics and antipyretics

72

counterirritants and local anesthetics

spray coolants
alcohol (evaporates and cools rapidly)
menthol (i.e. vix vaporub)
cold/ice - vasoconstriction and numbness
lydocaine

73

narcotic analgesics

codeine

propoxyphene hydrochloride

morphine

74

codeine

resembles morphine but is less potent

75

propoxyphene hydrochloride

mild analgesic, stronger than aspirin, can be habit forming

76

morphine

strong pain reliever
habit forming
can slow respiration

77

nonnarcotic analgesics and antipyretics

acetominophen: non anti-inflammatory activity; over ingestion could cause liver damage

78

drugs to reduce inflammation

aspirin, NSAIDs, Corticosteroids

79

aspirin

acetylsalicylic acid

anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesisc,

GI side effects, should not be given to

80

NSAIDs

non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug

inhibits prostaglandin synthesis;
anti-inflammation
less side effects, longer duration

81

corticosteroids

chronic inflammation

via injection,

can cause weakening/degeneration of tendons and ligaments

82

Drugs for GI disorders

Antacids, antiemetics, carminatives, cathartics, Antidiarrheals, histamine-2 blockers

83

Antacids (what does it do, what does it tx, common form)

neutralize acidity in upper GI
raises pH
inhibits digestive enzyme (pepsin)

tx: acid indigestion,heartburn, peptic ulcers

common: sodium bicarbonate

84

Antiemetics

tx: nausea/vomiting

Phenegran, antihistaines, anticholinergic drugs for preventing motion sickness and sedative drugs

side effect: sleepiness

85

Carminatives

relief from gas (flatulence)

inhibit gas formation in digestive canal and aid in its expulsion.

simethicone-commonly used

86

cathartics

laxatives
should be used under direction of a physician

87

antidiarrheals

locally acting medication

contain kaolin (absorbs other chemicals) and pectin (soothes irritated bowels)

some add bulk

most are prescription drugs (except loperamide/Imodium AD)

88

Histamine-2 Blockers

reduce stomach acid output by blocking histamine on certain cells in the stomach

tx: peptic ulcers, gastic ulcers,

Tagamet, Zantac

89

Drugs used to tx colds and allergies

nasal decongestants

antihistamines

cough medicines

sympathomimetics

90

nasal decongestants

mild vasoconstricting agents (Afrin, Otivin)

prolonged used can cause congestion and dependency

Oral agents (Sudafed)

91

Antihistamines

histamines cause dilation of arteries and capillaries, skin flushing, rise in skin temp

Benadryl, Claritin

can impair ability to sweat

92

cough medicines

antitussives (suppress cough)
-contain - diphenhydraine, dextromethorphan, bezonatate


or increase production of fluid in respiratory system (expectorants)
-contain guaifenesin

93

Sympathomimetics

used to tx exercise-induced asthma;

albuterol - bronchodilator

epinephrine - anaphylatic reaction

94

drugs used to control bleeding

vasoconstrictors

hemostatic agents

anticoagulants

95

Vasoconstrictors

epinephrine, applied to hemorrhaging area

96

hemostatic agents

thrombin

97

anticoagulants

common - herparin and coumarin derivatives

98

herparin

prolongs clotting time of blood (controls extension of a present thrombus)

99

coumarin

suppressing the formation of pro-thrombin in the liver

100

drugs that increase rate of heat illness

drugs that affect CNS and PnS

anticholinergics and antihistamines - decrease peripheral sweating

sympathomimetic amines - vasoconstrictors could cause heat stroke

101

Performance enhancing substances

stimulants, narcotica analgesics drugs, beta blockers, diuretics, anabolic steroids, androstenedione, human growth hormone

102

stimulants

psychomotor stimulant drugs (amphetamines and non-amphetamine)

adrenergic dugs

103

amphetamines

produce euphoria, increased sense of well-being, heightened mental activity

will cause fatigue, nervousness, insomnia, and anorexia

104

caffeine

stimulates cerebral cortex
wakefulness
mental alertness

can raise BP, increase plasma levels of epinephrine and rennin

105

narcotic analgesic drugs

derived from opium or synthetic opiates

morphine/codeine - pain management

106

beta blockers (what they effect, used for, how they work)

beta: type of sympathetic nerve ending

used for hypertension and heart disease or by sports requiring steadiness

inhibit action of catecholamines - producing relaxation of blood vessels --> slows heart rate and decreases contractility of heart muscle and Cardiac output

107

anabolic steroids

synthetically created chemical compounds who structure resembles naturally occurring testosterone

increease anabolic effect, and decrease androgenic side effects

common: anavar, dianabol, anadrol, finajet

108

anabolic

promote nitrogen retention (protein synthesis in muscle)

109

androgenic

growth development and maintenance of reproductive tissues and masculinization in males

110

side effects of anabolic steroids

liver tumors, heart disease, hypertension, CNS dysfunction, irreversible changes to reproductive and endocrine systems

111

THG

tetrahydrogestrinone

synthetic designer steroid

banned by U.S. Anti-doping agency

may be undetectable on drug tests

112

Androstenedione

used to produce testosterone increases in males, and improve performance in females

banned by IOC, NCAA, NFL, MLB

113

HGH

human growth hormone

produced by soma tropic cells of anterior pituitary

can be made synthetically

114

Drug Testing

NCAA- all athletes sign consent forms

USOC - randomly tests

athletes provide identification and urinate in 2 bottles under direct observation

115

banned substances by NCAA and USOC

anabolic steroids, diuretics, beta blockers, peptide hormones, stimulants (excluding permissed inahlants), caffeine (12 ug/mL for USOC and 15 ug/mL for NCAA), blood doping

116

just banned by USOC

narcotic analgesics, skeletal muscle relaxants, cough/cold decongestants, injectable aesthetics, corticosteroids

117

just banned by NCAA

substances that contain alcohol, stress drugs (heroin and marijuana)

118

tylenol

pain killer, doesn't really affect swelling,

acetaminophen

119

IBprofuen

little pain relief, helps with swelling

type of NSAID, addaprin, blood thinner

120

aleve

neproxin sodium

NSAID

blood thinner

121

blood thinner (NSAID

mobic, motrin, bactrim, ibuprofen,

122

therapeutic level

need at least 24-72 hours of medicine on a cycle to keep levels constant in the blood stream to establish a therapeutic level

123

psychotropic meds

riddlin, adderol, antidepressants, anti-anxiety,
sertraline (Zoloft)
fluoxetine (Prozac)
citalopram (Celexa)
escitalopram (Lexapro)
paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva)
fluvoxamine (Luvox)
trazodone (Oleptro)

124

chemical name

specifies the chemical structure
ex 4-(dimethyl-amino)

125

generic name

name assigned to each drug entity
non-proprietary name

126

trade name

name associated with company that markets the drug
proprietary name (NyQuil)

127

doxycycline

antibiotic

128

generic name vs generic drug

every drug has a generic name, not all are sold as generic brands

129

drugs classified based on

chemical structure, mechanism of action, based on legal action

130

beta-adrenergic-agonists

albuterol, salmeterol

these are all drugs that bind to and stimulate beta-adrenergic receptors

131

legal classifications

non-prescription, OTC, controlled substances, prescription drugs

132

non-prescription

low frequency of adverse effects

no need for periodic monitoring requirements

effective at appropriate OTC dose

133

prescription drugs

potential for adverse effects

requirements for monitoring

drug interactions

can only be used for a short time period

134

controlled substance, scheduled drugs

potential for abuse

restrictions on distribution, storage, and record keeping

five schedules based on the potential for abuse and whether the drug has an accepted medical use

135

controlled substance, schedule 1

high abuse potential
no accepted use in U.S.
Marijuana, LSD, Heroin

medical marijuana is not FDA approved

136

controlled substance, schedule 2

high abuse

accepted medical sue in US

cocaine, amphetamine, morphine, demerol, oxycontin, hydrocodone, ritalin

137

controlled substance, schedule 3

lower abuse potential than schedule 2
accepted medical use in U.S.

ex: anabolic steroids, tylenol #3 (tylenol with codeine)

138

controlled substance, schedule 4

lower abuse potential than schedule 3
accepted medial use

ex: valium, xanax

139

controlled substance, schedule 5

lowest abuse potential
contain small amounts of drug
may be nonprescription in some states

example: cough syrup with codeine