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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Nutrition Deck (65):
1

Nutrition

the science of the substances found in food that are essential to life

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macro and micronutrients

carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water

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function of nutrients

growth, repair and maintenance

regulation of body processes

production of nutrient dense foods supply adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals in relation to caloric value

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Carbs

sugars, starches, fiber

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what % of intake is carbs?

55-70%

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sugars

15% of total intake

monosaccharides- fruits, syrups, honey

disaccharides - milk sugar (lactose), table sugar (sucrose)

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starches

complex carbs - long chains of glucose units

cannot be used directly for energy

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fiber

structural part of plants

not digested by humans

soluble
or
insoluble

25g/day

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fats

most energy

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saturated vs unsaturated

saturated - animal products, solid at room temp

unsaturated - plants, liquid at room temp

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Phopholipids

lecithin and sterols (cholesterol)

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Proteins

structure component of body
12-15% of intake

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functions of protein

growth, maintenance, repair, synthesize enzymes, synthesize hormones and antibodies

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amino acids

21 amino acids
essential vs nonessential

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vitamins

fat soluble (KADE)
-found in fatty foods and oils can cause vitamin poisoning

water soluble C and B-complex vitamins
-thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, etc
-folate, B12, etc

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thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, and pantothenic acid are what type of vitamin, what do they regulate?

water soluble

metabolism of CHO, proteins, and fats

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Folate and B12 are important for

normal blood formation

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Vitamin C

building bones & teeth, maintaining connective tissues & strengthening the immune system

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Antioxidants

Vitamin C, E, beta carotene (A)

squelch free radicals by stabilizing them.

prevent aging, cancer, heart disease, etc

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is beta carotene toxic?

no, it can be converted into vitamin A

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excess vitamin C...

is not well absorbed
can cause intestine irritation or diarrhea

22

headache, nausea, loss of hair, dry skin, diarrhea --> what are you deficient in?

vitamin A

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appetite loss, weight loss, failure to grow --> what are you deficient in?

Vitamin D

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nausea, diarrhea, interfere with Vitamin K absorption --> what are you deficient in?

Vitamin E

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Minerals

stored in liver and bones mostly

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magnesium

needed in energy-supplying reactions

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sodium and potassium

important for transmission of nerve impulses

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iron

energy metabolism, combines with protein to form hemoglobin

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Calcium

bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, muscle contraction

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Water

most important nutrient
60% of body weight

needed for energy production and digestion, temp control, elimination

2.5L/10 glasses a day

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Electrolytes

Sodium, calcium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, -->maintain water balance

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DRI

established using an expanded concept that includes indicators of good health and the prevention of chronic disease, as well as possible adverse effects of overconsumption

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protein supplementation

1-1.5 g protein for every kg of body weight to build muscle

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creatine supplementation, herbal supplement

look

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ephedrine

look

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disordered eating

types, referral process

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environmental considerations

hypo-hyper thermia
how to gain heat
playing surfaces
conduction/convection/radiation
evaporative heat loss - sweating
heat index/ wet bulb globe index/ humidity etc
weight records
loss of 2% body weight is severely dehydrated
heat illnesses
hypothermia

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DRI's include

RDA (recommended allowance)

UL (upper level limit)

EAR (estimated average) -50% of ppl

AI - adequate intake based on experimental research

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calcium

bone and tooth formation, blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve function

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phosphorous

skeletal development, tooth formation

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sodium

maintenance of fluid

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iron

formation of hemoglobin; energy from carbs, fats, and protein

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copper

formation of hemoglobin

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zinc

normal growth and development

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iodine

production of the hormone thyroxin

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fluorine

strengthens bones and teeth

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megadoes

overdose on a vitamin

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megadose on vitamin C

diarrhea and kidney stones

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too low on calcium

removed from bones, osteoporosis

1000 mg is AI

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Iron deficient

anemia - reduced oxygen carrying ability

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ingesting creatine

loading: .3 gram per kg of body weight per day 4-5x a day w/ 16 oz of water. for 5 days
or 3g/day for 30 days

maintenace: .03 g per day

washout: 1 month, no supplementation

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IS creatine banned? by who

yes, NCAA

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herbs

offer nutrients, not necessarily considered drugs,

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ephedrine

stimulant used in die pills, illegal drugs, and OTC meds.
banned by the FDA as a dietary supplement
NCAA, NFL, NBA, USOC, mLB, banned it

can cause heart attack, stroke, tachycardia, paranoid psychosis, depression, convulsions, fever, coma, vomiting, palpitations, hypertension, respiratory depression

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effects caffeine

too much: nervous, headaches, light headed

just a bit: more use of fat, calcium more available for muscles,

USOC consideres >6 cups of coffee performance enhancing

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vegans may be deficient in

calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin b12, calories

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pre event meal

eat low GI food immediately before
consume carbs over week before competition
eat high GI good 3-4 hours before

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glycogen super-compensation

stop activity 2 days before, carbo load to increase glycogen stores

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Body Composition

amount of fat and nonfat
femalse 12-15% body fat
males 8-12%

amount of fat determined by size and # of adipose cells

60

how to measure

skin caliper
hydrostatic weighing (gold standard)
bioelectrical impedence
BMI charts

61

bullimia nervosa

generally female,
gorges then purges
use laxatives or diuretics
perfectionist, obedient, good athlete etc

can cause stomach rupture, disruption of heart rhythm, liver damage, inflamed mucous lining,

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anorexia nervosa

distorted body image and a major concern for weight gain
deny hunger, are hyperactive, secretive
need psychiatric intervention

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anorexia athletica

similiar to anorexia nervosa without the self starvation
disturbed body image, weight loss > 5%, GI disorders, amenorrhea, menstrual dysfunction, medical illness, fear of obesity, binging and purging, compulsive eating,

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Female Athlete Triad

eating disorder, amenorrhea, osteoporosis

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Vitamin A function

sustains normal eyesight, regulation of gene expression, cell differentiation, immune function, growth, reproduction