Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Supplementation Deck (21):
The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to eet the requirement of half the healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
The average daily nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
A recommended average daily nutrient intake level,, based on observed (or experimentally determined) approximations or estimates of nutrient intake that are assumed to be adequate for a group of healthy people. This measure is used when RDA cannot be determined.
Adequate Intake (AI)
The hihest average daily nutrient intake levle likely to pose no risk of adverse health affects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. As intake increases above this, the potential risk of adverse health effects increases
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
Were established specifically for food labeling and are intended to provide the consumer with a frame of reference that indicates how the amount of the nutrient present compares with approximate levels of recommended intake.
% daily value (DV)
The amounts of vitamins A, D, and E are expressed on supplement labels as____
IU's (International Units)
protein, fat, and carb are generally expressed in ___________ on nutrition labels
vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids are grenerally expressed in _________ on nutrition labels
mg or mcg
Liver damage, bone and joint pain, dry skin, loss of hair, headache, and vomiting are all side effects of excess ____________
Increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and those heavily exposed to asbestos
Calcification of brain and arteries, increased blood calcium, loss of appetite, nausea
excess Vit D
Deficient blood clotting
excess Vit E
Red blood cell damage or anemia, liver damage
excess Vit K
Nausea, diarrhea, kidney stones
excess vit C
nausea, constipation, kidney stones
gastrointestinal distress, increased risk of heart disease, oxidative stress
Gastrointestinal irritation; fatigue, impaired immune function, low HDL cholesorolt
supplementation with this can increase levels in muscle and may enhance certain types of brief high-intensity muscular efforts. when combined with a strength training program it has been shown to increase muscle mass, strenth, and anaerobic performance.
Creatine basic dosing scheme begins with ___ to ___ days of supplementation at ___ gram per day to rapidly increase muscle creatine. This is then followed by a maintenance phase of ____ to ___ g per day to sustain maximal muscle creatine levels.
20g; 2 to 5g
studies have demonstrated this ergogenic aid is especially effective on well-trained athletes peroforming endurance exercise or high intensity short duration exercise lasting about 5 minutes. However does not appear effective on sprint type efforts lasting 90 seconds or less.