Chapter 18 - Supplementation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Supplementation Deck (21):
1

The average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to eet the requirement of half the healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)

2

The average daily nutrient intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals who are in a particular life stage and gender group.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

3

A recommended average daily nutrient intake level,, based on observed (or experimentally determined) approximations or estimates of nutrient intake that are assumed to be adequate for a group of healthy people. This measure is used when RDA cannot be determined.

Adequate Intake (AI)

4

The hihest average daily nutrient intake levle likely to pose no risk of adverse health affects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage and gender group. As intake increases above this, the potential risk of adverse health effects increases

Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

5

Were established specifically for food labeling and are intended to provide the consumer with a frame of reference that indicates how the amount of the nutrient present compares with approximate levels of recommended intake.

% daily value (DV)

6

The amounts of vitamins A, D, and E are expressed on supplement labels as____

IU's (International Units)

7

protein, fat, and carb are generally expressed in ___________ on nutrition labels

grams

8

vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids are grenerally expressed in _________ on nutrition labels

mg or mcg

9

Liver damage, bone and joint pain, dry skin, loss of hair, headache, and vomiting are all side effects of excess ____________

Vitamin A

10

Increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and those heavily exposed to asbestos

excess beta-carotene

11

Calcification of brain and arteries, increased blood calcium, loss of appetite, nausea

excess Vit D

12

Deficient blood clotting

excess Vit E

13

Red blood cell damage or anemia, liver damage

excess Vit K

14

Nausea, diarrhea, kidney stones

excess vit C

15

nausea, constipation, kidney stones

excess calcium

16

gastrointestinal distress, increased risk of heart disease, oxidative stress

excess Iron

17

Gastrointestinal irritation; fatigue, impaired immune function, low HDL cholesorolt

excess zinc

18

supplementation with this can increase levels in muscle and may enhance certain types of brief high-intensity muscular efforts. when combined with a strength training program it has been shown to increase muscle mass, strenth, and anaerobic performance.

creatine

19

Creatine basic dosing scheme begins with ___ to ___ days of supplementation at ___ gram per day to rapidly increase muscle creatine. This is then followed by a maintenance phase of ____ to ___ g per day to sustain maximal muscle creatine levels.

20g; 2 to 5g

20

studies have demonstrated this ergogenic aid is especially effective on well-trained athletes peroforming endurance exercise or high intensity short duration exercise lasting about 5 minutes. However does not appear effective on sprint type efforts lasting 90 seconds or less.

caffeine

21

The most effective ergogenic response with caffeine has been observed when the dosage is about ___ to ____ mg per kg body weight and it is ingested about ____ before exercise.

3 to 6 mg; 1 hr.