Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science Deck (74):
The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.
Human Movement System
A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body.
The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment.
The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response.
The neuromuscular response to the sensory information.
The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement.
The functional unit of the nervous system
Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another.
Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites.
The portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System
Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body.
Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues
Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.
Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change
Gogli Tendon Organs
Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint
The body's framework, composed of bones and joints in two divisions; axial and appendicular.
Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs
Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs. Also known as an articulation
Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column.
Portioon of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremeties.
The process of resorption and formation of bone
A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue
A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation
The end of long bones, which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production. They are also one of the primary sites for bone growth.
The shaft portion of a long bone
The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. it is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs.
A dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane
The Central cavity of bone shafts where marrow is stored
Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones.
Flattened or indented portions of bone, which can be muscle attachment sites.
Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.
A series of irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae that houses the spinal cord
Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body.
Joint with no joint cavityand fibrous tissue; little or no movement. Sutures of the skull.
Joint with no axis of rotation; moves by sliding side to side or back and forth (Carpals of the hand)
Joint formed by the fitting of condyles of one bone into elliptical cavities of another; moves predominantly in one plane. (knee)
Uniaxial Joint; moves predominantly in one plane of motion (sagittal) (Elbow)
Joint where one bone fits like a saddle on another bone; moves mostly in two planes (sagittal, joint of thumb frontal) (ONLY: carpometacarpal)
Joint with only one axis; moves predominantly in one plane of motion (transverse) (radioulnar joint at elbow and at base of skull)
Most mobile of joints; moves in all three planes of motion. (shoulder)
Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement.
Provide both movement and stability. Movement of one will effect the others as they are interconnected.
Series of muscles that moves the skeleton
A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle
The connective tissue that surrounds fascicles
The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers
each layer of connective tissue within the muscular system extends the length of the muscle, helping to for the ____________.
Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for the muscles to produce force.
Review figure 2.34, Pg. 37.
Structure of the skeletal muscle.
The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin
The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation.
A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innerates
Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.
The process of neural stimulation creating a muscle contraction.
A series of steps that start with the initiation of a neural message (neural activation) and end up with a muscle contraction.
Sliding Filament Theory (review fig. 2.38, pg. 40)
Released in the steps to initiate a muscle contraction
Removed in the steps that end a muscle contraction
AChE, acetylcholine esterase
Muscle fibers with more capillaries, mitochondria, and myogoblin.
Type 1 (Slow Twitch)
Muscle fibers with increased oxygen delivery
Type 1 (slow twitch)
Muscle fibers that are smaller in size, produce less force, and are slower to fatigue with long-term contractions used in stabilization.
Type 1 (slow twitch)
Muscle fibers with fewer capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin with decreased oxygen delivery.
Type 2 (fast twitch)
Muscle fibers that are larger in size, producing more force, quick to fatigue used in short term contractions for force and power.
Type 2 (fast twitch)
Muscle functioning as the prime mover.
Muscle assisting the prime mover.
Muscle that stabilizes while prime mover and synergist work.
Muscle that opposes the prime mover.
Label muscles used in a chest press in the following order. Posterior deltoid, Pectoralis major, Rotator Cuff, Anterior deltoid & triceps.
Posterior Deltoid - Antagonist
Pectoralis major - Agonist
Rotator Cuff - Stabilizer
Anterior Deltoid & Triceps - Synergist
Label muscles used in Overhead press, in the following order. Deltoid, Rotator Cuff, Lattisimus Dorsi, triceps.
Deltoid - Agonist
Rotator cuff - stabilizer
Lattisimus Dorsi - Antagonist
Triceps - synergist
Label muscles used in a row, in the following order. Pectoralis major, rotator cuff, posterior deltoid & biceps, Lattisimus dorsi.
Pectoralis major - antagonist
Rotator cuff - stabilizer
Posterior deltoid & biceps - synergist
Lattisimus dorsi - agonist
Label muscles used in a squat in the following order.
Gluteus maximus & quadriceps -- agonist
Hamstring complex - synergist
transversus abdominis - stabilizer
Psoas - antagonist
Responsible for regulating multiple bodily functions to stabilize the body's internal environment. Cosisting of host organs (glands), chemical messengers (hormones), and target (or receptor) cells.