Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science Deck (74):
1

The combination and interrelation of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.

Human Movement System

2

A conglomeration of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body.

Nervous System

3

The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment.

Sensory Function

4

The ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response.

Integrative Function

5

The neuromuscular response to the sensory information.

Motor Function

6

The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement.

Proprioception

7

The functional unit of the nervous system

Neurons

8

Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.

Sensory Neurons

9

Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another.

Interneurons.

10

Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites.

Motor Neurons

11

The portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord

Central Nervous System

12

Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body.

Peripheral Nervous System

13

Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues

Mechanoreceptors

14

Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change.

Muscle spindles

15

Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change

Gogli Tendon Organs

16

Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint

Joint Receptors

17

The body's framework, composed of bones and joints in two divisions; axial and appendicular.

Skeletal system

18

Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs

Bones

19

Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue at which movement occurs. Also known as an articulation

Joints

20

Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column.

Axial Skeleton

21

Portioon of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremeties.

Appendicular Skeleton

22

The process of resorption and formation of bone

Remodeling

23

A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue

Osteoclasts

24

A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation

Osteoblasts

25

The end of long bones, which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production. They are also one of the primary sites for bone growth.

Epiphysis

26

The shaft portion of a long bone

Diaphysis

27

The region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. it is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the diaphysis occurs.

Epiphyseal Plate

28

A dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane

Periosteum

29

The Central cavity of bone shafts where marrow is stored

Medullar cavity

30

Cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones.

articular cartilage

31

Flattened or indented portions of bone, which can be muscle attachment sites.

Depressions

32

Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach.

Processes

33

A series of irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae that houses the spinal cord

Vertebral Column

34

Joint Motion

Arthrokinematics

35

Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body.

Synovial Joints

36

Joint with no joint cavityand fibrous tissue; little or no movement. Sutures of the skull.

Nonsynovial Joint

37

Joint with no axis of rotation; moves by sliding side to side or back and forth (Carpals of the hand)

Gliding Joint

38

Joint formed by the fitting of condyles of one bone into elliptical cavities of another; moves predominantly in one plane. (knee)

Condyloid Joint

39

Uniaxial Joint; moves predominantly in one plane of motion (sagittal) (Elbow)

Hinge Joint

40

Joint where one bone fits like a saddle on another bone; moves mostly in two planes (sagittal, joint of thumb frontal) (ONLY: carpometacarpal)

Saddle Joint

41

Joint with only one axis; moves predominantly in one plane of motion (transverse) (radioulnar joint at elbow and at base of skull)

Pivot Joint

42

Most mobile of joints; moves in all three planes of motion. (shoulder)

Ball-and-socket Joint

43

Primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement.

Ligament

44

Provide both movement and stability. Movement of one will effect the others as they are interconnected.

Joints

45

Series of muscles that moves the skeleton

Muscular System

46

A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle

Epimysium

47

The connective tissue that surrounds fascicles

Perimysium

48

The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers

Endomysium

49

each layer of connective tissue within the muscular system extends the length of the muscle, helping to for the ____________.

Tendon

50

Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for the muscles to produce force.

Tendons

51

Review figure 2.34, Pg. 37.

Structure of the skeletal muscle.

52

The functional unit of muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin

Sarcomere

53

The contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation.

Neural Activation

54

A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innerates

Motor Unit

55

Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle.

Neurotransmitters.

56

The process of neural stimulation creating a muscle contraction.

Excitation-contraction coupling

57

A series of steps that start with the initiation of a neural message (neural activation) and end up with a muscle contraction.

Sliding Filament Theory (review fig. 2.38, pg. 40)

58

Released in the steps to initiate a muscle contraction

ACh, acetylcholine

59

Removed in the steps that end a muscle contraction

AChE, acetylcholine esterase

60

Muscle fibers with more capillaries, mitochondria, and myogoblin.

Type 1 (Slow Twitch)

61

Muscle fibers with increased oxygen delivery

Type 1 (slow twitch)

62

Muscle fibers that are smaller in size, produce less force, and are slower to fatigue with long-term contractions used in stabilization.

Type 1 (slow twitch)

63

Muscle fibers with fewer capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin with decreased oxygen delivery.

Type 2 (fast twitch)

64

Muscle fibers that are larger in size, producing more force, quick to fatigue used in short term contractions for force and power.

Type 2 (fast twitch)

65

Muscle functioning as the prime mover.

Agonist

66

Muscle assisting the prime mover.

Synergist

67

Muscle that stabilizes while prime mover and synergist work.

Stabilizer

68

Muscle that opposes the prime mover.

Antagonist

69

Label muscles used in a chest press in the following order. Posterior deltoid, Pectoralis major, Rotator Cuff, Anterior deltoid & triceps.

Posterior Deltoid - Antagonist
Pectoralis major - Agonist
Rotator Cuff - Stabilizer
Anterior Deltoid & Triceps - Synergist

70

Label muscles used in Overhead press, in the following order. Deltoid, Rotator Cuff, Lattisimus Dorsi, triceps.

Deltoid - Agonist
Rotator cuff - stabilizer
Lattisimus Dorsi - Antagonist
Triceps - synergist

71

Label muscles used in a row, in the following order. Pectoralis major, rotator cuff, posterior deltoid & biceps, Lattisimus dorsi.

Pectoralis major - antagonist
Rotator cuff - stabilizer
Posterior deltoid & biceps - synergist
Lattisimus dorsi - agonist

72

Label muscles used in a squat in the following order.

Gluteus maximus & quadriceps -- agonist
Hamstring complex - synergist
transversus abdominis - stabilizer
Psoas - antagonist

73

Responsible for regulating multiple bodily functions to stabilize the body's internal environment. Cosisting of host organs (glands), chemical messengers (hormones), and target (or receptor) cells.

Endocrine System

74

Produced by the endocrine system and affect virtually all forms of human function and determine how the body physically and emotionally responds to stress

Hormones