Chapter 5 - Human Movement Science Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Human Movement Science Deck (80):
1

The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces

Biomechanics

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positioned above a point of reference

superior

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positioned below a point of reference

inferior

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positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference

proximal

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positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of referene

distal

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on the front of the body

anterior

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on the back of the body

posterior

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positioned neat the middle of the body

medial

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positioned toward the outside of the body

lateral

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positioned on the opposite side of the body

contralateral

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positioned on the same side of the body

ipsilateral

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the position with the body erect with the arms at the sides and the palms forward.

anatomic position

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an imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves

sagittal plane

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A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments dereases

flexion

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Plane of motion occuring with flexion/extension on a coronal axis

Sagittal

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Plane of motion occuring with adduction/abduction, lateral flexion, eversion/inversion on an anterior-posterior axis

Frontal

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Plane of motion occuring with internal/external rotation, left/right rotation, horizontal adducction/abduction on a longitudinal plane

Transverse

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Biceps curl, tricep push-down, squat, front lunge, calf raise, walking, running, vertical jumping, climbing stairs all occur in which plane of motion?

Sagittal

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Side lateral raise, side lunge, and side shuffle all occur in which plane of motion?

Frontal

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Trunk rotation, throwing, golfing, and swinging a bat all occur in which plane of motion?

Transverse

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Flexion where toe points up toward you.

Dorsiflexion

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Flexion where toe point down and away.

Plantar flexion

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Flexion where knee bends leg backward as in a hamstring curl.

Knee flexion

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extension where knee direct the foot out and away from the body.

knee extension

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high knee leg raise is an example of which type of flexion?

hip flexion; femoral-on-pelvic rotation

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bending forward hinging at the hip as in a deadlift is an example of what type of flexion?

Hip flexion: pelvic-on-femoral rotation

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extending the leg straight and directly backwards is an example of?

hip extension

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bending the upper back and head forward is an example of spinal ___________ .

Flexion

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bending the head and upper back backwards is an example of spinal ________ .

Extension

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bending at the elbow bringin the hand toward the shoulder is an example of elbow __________ .

Flexion

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hinging at the elbow and extending the arm down and outward is an example of Elbow ________ .

Extension

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bringing the arm overhead is an example of shoulder ___________ .

Flexion

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bring the arm straight down and away is an example of shoulder _____________ .

Extension

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bending the head forward and down is an example of cervical ____________ .

Flexion

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extending the head back and upward is an example of cervical ___________ .

Extension

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A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases.

Extension

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Extension of a joint beyond the normal limit or range of motion.

hyperextension

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An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves.

frontal plane

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a movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body.

abduction

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movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline of the body

adduction

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an imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves

Transverse Plane

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rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body

internal rotation

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rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body

external rotation

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movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position

horizontal abduction

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movment of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position

horizontal adduction

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side bend is an example of ______________ flexion

lateral

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Eversion, inversion, hip abduction/adduction, lateral flexion, shoulder abduction/adduction, and cervical lateral flexion are all examples of ___________ and ___________ movements. Pg 81

adduction and abduction

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Adduction of scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline.

scapular retraction

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abduction of scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline

scapular protraction

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downward (inferior) motion of the scapula

scapular depression

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upward (superior) motion of the scapula

scapular elevation

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rotate extended arm to face palm outward.

Radioulnar supination

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rotate extended arm to face palm inward

radioulnar pronation

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rotate lifted arms outward

shoulder horizontal abduction

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rotate lifted arms inward

shoulder horizontal adduction

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a muscle contraction where force is produced, muscle tension is developed, and movement occurs through a given range of motion. (constant muscle tension). Two kinds: Eccentric and Concentric

Isotonic

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muscle action that occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening

Eccentric.

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When a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscle.

Concentric

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When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visisble change in the muscle length.

Isometric

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When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion.

Isokinetic

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An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object.

Force

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the resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length

Length-Tension Relationship

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Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint.

Force-Couple

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Common force couple that creates a trunk rotation movement

Internal and external obliques

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a common force couple that causes upward rotation of the scapula

upper trapezius and the lower portion of the serratus anterior

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a common force-couple that produces hip and knee extension during walking, running, stair climbing, etc.

Gluteus maximus, quadriceps, and calf

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a common for couple that performs plantarflexion at the foot and ankle complex

Gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, and tibialis posterior

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a common force-couple that performs should abduction

deltoid and rotator cuff

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movement of the bones around the joints

Rotary Motion

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A force that produces rotation. Common unit of measurement is the newton-meter or Nm.

Torque

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Motor response to internal and extternal environmental stimuli

Motor Behavior

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How the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response

Motor Control

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Integration of motor control processes through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements.

Motor Learning

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The change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan.

Motor development

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Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement.

Muscle Synergies

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The cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movements.

Proprioception

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The cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement.

Sensorimotor Integration

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The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning.

Feedback

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The process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment.

Internal Feedback

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Information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor to supplement the internal environment.

External Feedback