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primarily aimed at identifying individuals who require further medical evaluation before being allowed to exercise because they are at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

PAR-Q - Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire


If doctor has ever said you have a heart condition and that you should only follow doctors recommendations for exercise; If you feel pain in chest while performing physical activity; In the past month have you had chest pain any time?; if you lose balance because of dizziness or if you ever lose consciousness; if you have a bone or joint problem that could be made worse by a change in physical activity; if you are currently on blood pressure or heart medication; if you know of any reason you should not engage in physical activity

Seek medical attention before starting an exercise program.


General and Medical history: Occupation, Lifestyle, Medical, and Personal Info component of a fitness assessment

Subjective Information


Physiologic, cardiorespiratory, static and dynamic postural assessments, performance assessments, and body composition testing.

Objective information for fitness assessments


What is your occupation?
Does it require extended periods of sitting or repetitive movements, require heels or dress shoes, cause you stress or anxiety?

Sample questions: Client Occupation


Do you partake in any recreational activities? and Do you have any hobbies? are examples of ____________ ____________ sample questions.

Client Lifestyle


questions about pain and prior injuries, surgeries, chronic disease, coronary heart or artery disease, hypertension, high cholestorol, or diabetes are all examples of questions you would find on a client _____ ____________ questionnaire.

Medical History


Heart rate is checked on inside of wrist with a gentle touch, while client is calm. Record 60 second pulse rate and average over the course of 3 days.

Radial Pulse


excessive pressure when taking this type of pulse can decrease HR and blood pressure, leading to an innacurate reading, and possible dizziness and fainting.

Carotid Pulse


Target HR training zone which builds aerobic base and aids in recovery.

Zone 1


Target HR zone that increases aerobic and anaerobic endurance.

Zone 2


Target HR training zone that builds high-end work capacity.

Zone 3


Straight percentage method of calculating Target HR

220 - age (max heart rate) multiplied by percentage rate for desired intensity.


Zone one target HR percentage

65 - 75%


Zone two target HR percentage

76 - 85%


Zone three target HR percentage

86 - 95%


method of establishing training intensity on the basis of the difference between a cllient's predicted maximal heart rate and their resting heart rate. Also known as Karvonen method.

HR Reserve (HRR) method


the most common and universally accepted method of establishing exercise training intensity.

HRR (heart rate reserve method)


THR = [(HRmax - HRrest) x desired intensity] + HRrest

HRR method


The pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels after blood is ejected from the heart

Blood Pressure


BP number that represents the pressure within the arterial system after the heart contracts.



BP number that represents the pressure within the arterial system when the heart is resting and filling with blood.



acceptable blood pressure



body composition assessment that uses a caliper to estimate the amount of subcutaneous fat beneath the skin.

skin fold measurement


Body composition measurement that uses a portable instrument to conduct an electrical current through the body to estimate fat.

Biolectrical Impedence


Most often used in exercise physiology labs to measure body composition.

Hyrdrostatic weighing


% Fat standards for men. Young,middle aged, and elderly.

5-15%, 7-18%, 9-18%


% fat standards for women. Young, middle aged, and elderly.

16-28%, 20-33%, 20-33%


Method of measurement that:
- can be used on obese clients
- good for comparisons and progressions
- good for assessing body fat pattern and distribution
- inexpensive
- easy to record
- little technician error

Circumference measurements


a rough assessment based on the concept that a persons weight should be proportional to their height.



calculated by either dividing the weight in kilograms by the square of the height or dividing body weight in pounds by the square of height in inches and multiplying by 703.



BMI with lowest risk for disease lies within ___ to _____

22 to 24.9


test designed to estimate an indiidual's cardiorespiratory fitness level on the basis of a submaximal bout of stair climbing at a set pace for a set amount of time.

YMCA 3 minute step test.


perform a 3 minute step test

follow steps pg 120-121


test designed to estimate a cardiovascular starting point. The starting point is then modified based on ability level. walk 1 mile as fast as person can control, then take immediate pulse. Then use calculations to determine Oxygen consumption (VO2) score.

Rockport Walk Test


A postural distortion syndrome characterized by foot pronation (flat feet) and adducted and internally rotated knees (knock knees)

Pronation distortion syndrome


A postural distortion syndrome characterized by an anterior tilt pelvis (arched low back)

Lower crossed Syndrome


A postural distortion syndrom characterized by a forward head and rounded shoulders

Upper crossed syndrome


shortened gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneals, adductors, Illiotibial head, hip flexor complex, and biceps femoris are all characteristic of _______________ .

pronation distortion syndrome


Lengthenin of the anterior tibialis, posterior tibialis, vastus medialis, Gluteurs medius/maximus, and hip external rotators are all characteristic of ___________.

pronation distortion syndrome


Incresed knee adduction, knee internal rotation, foot pronation, and foot external rotation, and decreased ankle dorsiflexion and ankle inversion are all characteristic altered joint mechanics of _______________.

pronation distortion syndrome


Plantar fasciitis, Posterior tibialis tendonitis, and low back pain are all possible injuries associated with ___________.

Pronation distortion syndrome


Shortened gastocnemius, soleus, hip flexor complex, adductors, lasissimus dorsi, and erector spinae are all characteristic of _________.

Lower crossed Syndrome


Lengthened anterior tibialis, posterior tibialis, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, transversus abdominis, and internal obliques are all characteristic of ________________.

Lower crossed syndrome


Increased lumbar extension and decreased hip function are charcteristic altered joint mechanics of _____________________.

Lower crossed syndrome


Hamstring complex strain, anterior knee pain, and low back pain are all potential injuries associated with _____________.

Lower crossed syndrome


Shortened upper trapezius, Levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, latissimus dorsi, teres major, subscapularis,and pectorals are all characteristic of _______________.

Upper crossed syndrome


Lengthened deep cervical flexors, serratus anterior, rhomboids, mid-trapezius, lower trapezius, teres minor, and infraspinatus are all characteristic of ____________.

Upper crossed syndrome.


Increased cervical extension, scapular protraction/elevation and decrease shoulder extension and shoulder external rotation are all altered joint mechanics characteristic of _________.

Upper crossed syndrome.


Possible injures associate with _____________ are headaches, biceps tendonitis, rotator cuff impingement, and thoracic outlet syndrome.

Upper crossed syndrome


lateral checkpoints for overhead squat assessment

LPHC and Upper body


Anterior checkpoints during an overhead squat assessment.

Feet and knees


Checkpoint for the single leg squat

watch for the knee moving inward


Checkpoints for the pushing assessment

LPHC, Shoulder complex, and head


Checkpoints for the pulling assessment.

LPHC, Shoulder complex, Head.


A performance assessment that measures muscular endurance of the upper body. Primarily the pushing muscles.

Push-up Test


An assessment that measures upper extremity agility and stabilization. May not be suitable for clients who lack shoulder stability.

Davies test


An assessment designed to assess lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control. It should be viewed as a progression from the single leg squat and, as such, may not be suitable for all individuals.

Shark skill test


Assessment designed to estimate the one-rep max on overall upper body stregth of the pressing musculature. advanced assessment. Not for clients with general fitness or weight loss goals.

upper extremity strength assessment: Bench press