Chapter 19: Thorax and Lungs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 19: Thorax and Lungs Deck (107)
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1

Alveoli

Functional units of the lung; the thin-walled chambers surrounded by networks of capillaries that are the site of respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen

2

Angle of Louis

Manubriosternal angle, the articulation of the manubrium and body of the sternum, continuous with the second rib

3

Apnea

Cessation of breathing

4

Asthma

An abnormal respiratory condition associated with allergic hypersensitivity to certain inhaled allergens, characterized by inflammation, bronchospasm, wheezing, and dyspnea

5

Atelectasis

An abnormal respiratory condition characterized by collapsed, shrunken, deflated sections of alveoli

6

Bradypnea

Slow breathing, fewer than 10 breaths per minute, regular rate

7

Bronchiole

One of the smaller respiratory passageways into which the segmental bronchi divide

8

Bronchitis

Inflammation of the bronchi with partial obstruction of bronchi due to excessive mucus secretion

9

Bronchophony

The spoken voice sound hear through the stethoscope, which sounds soft, muffled, and indistinct over normal lung tissue

10

Bronchovesicular

The normal breath sound heard over major bronchi, characterized by moderate pitch and an equal duration of inspiration and expiration

11

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

A functional category of abnormal respiratory conditions characterized by airflow obstruction (e.g. emphysema, chronic bronchitis_

12

Cilia

Millions of hairlike cells lining the tracheobronchial tree

13

Consolidation

The solidification of portions of lung tissue as it fills up with infectious exudate, as in pneumonia

14

Crackles

(Rales) abnormal, discontinuous, adventitious lung sounds heard on inspiration

15

Crepitus

Coarse, crackling sensation palpable over the skin when air abnormally escapes from the lungs and enters the subcutaneous tissue

16

Dead space

Passageways that transport air but are not available for gaseous exchange (e.g. trachea, bronchi)

17

Dyspnea

Difficult, labored breathing

18

Emphysema

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by enlargement of alveoli distal to terminal bronchioles

19

Fissure

The narrow crack dividing the lobes of the lungs

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Fremitus

A palpable vibration from the spoken voice felt over the chest wal

21

Friction rub

A coarse, grating, adventitious lung sound heard when the pleurae are inflamed

22

Hypercapnia

(Hypercarbia) increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood

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Hyperventilation

Increased rate and depth of breathing

24

Hypoxia

Decreased level of oxygen in the blood

25

Intercostal space

Space between ribs

26

Kussmaul respiration

Type of hyperventilation that occurs with diabetic ketoacidosis

27

Orthopnea

Ability to breathe easily only in an upright position

28

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

Sudden awakening from sleeping, with shortness of breath

29

Percussion

Striking over the chest wall with short, sharp blows of the fingers to determine the size and density of the underlying organ

30

Pleural effusion

Abnormal fluid between the layers of the pleura