Chapter 20: Heart and Neck Vessels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20: Heart and Neck Vessels Deck (128)
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1

Angina pectoris

Acute chest pain that occurs when myocardial demand exceeds its oxygen supply

2

Aortic regurgitation

(Aortic insufficiency) incompetent aortic valve that allows backward flow of blood into left ventricle during diastole

3

Aortic stenosis

Calcification of aortic valve cusps that restricts forward flow of blood during systole

4

Aortic valve

The left semilunar valve separating the left ventricle and the aorta

5

Apex of the heart

Tip of the heart pointing down toward the 5th left ventricle and the aorta

6

Apical impulse

Point of maximal impulse (PMI); pulsation created as the left ventricle rotates against the chest wall during systole, normally at the 5th left intercostal space in the midclavicular line

7

Base of the heart

Broader area of heart's outline located at the 3rd right and left intercostal spaces

8

Bell (of the stethoscope)

Cup-shaped endpiece used for soft. low-pitched heart sounds

9

Bradycardia

Slow heart rate, less than 50 beats per minute in the adult

10

Clubbing

Bulbous enlargement of distal phalanges of fingers and toes that occurs with chronic cyanotic heart and lung conditions

11

Coarctation of aorta

Severe narrowing of the descending aorta, a congenital heart defect

12

Cor pulmonale

Right ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure due to pulmonary hypertension

13

Cyanosis

Dusky blue mottling of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive amount of reduced hemoglobin in the blood

14

Diaphragm (of the stethoscope)

Flat end of the stethoscope used for hearing relatively high-pitched heart sounds

15

Diastole

The heart's filling phase

16

Dyspnea

Difficult, labored breathing

17

Edema

Swelling of legs or dependent body part due to increased interstitial fluid

18

Erb's point

Traditional auscultatory area in the 3rd left intercostal space

19

First heart sound (S1)

Occurs with closure of the atrioventricular valves signaling the beginning of systole

20

Fourth heart sound (S4)

S4 gallop, atrial gallop; very soft, low-pitched ventricular filling sound that occurs in the late diastole

21

Gallop rhythm

The addition of a 3rd or a 4th heart sound; makes the rhythm sound like the cadence of a galloping horse

22

Inching

Technique of moving the stethoscope incrementally across the precordium through the auscultatory areas while listening to the heart sounds

23

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)

Increase in thickness of myocardial wall that occurs when the heart pumps against chronic outflow obstruction (e.g. aortic stenosis)

24

Midclavicular line (MCL)

Imaginary vertical line bisecting the middle of the clavicle in each hemithorax

25

Mitral regurgitation

Mitral insufficiency; incompetent mitral valve allows regurgitation of blood back into left atrium during systole

26

Mitral stenosis

Calcified mitral valve impedes forward flow of blood into left ventricle during diastole

27

Mitral valve

Left atrioventricular valve separating the left atrium and ventricle

28

Palpitation

Uncomfortable awareness of rapid or irregular heart rate

29

Paradoxical splitting

Opposite of a normal split S2 so that the split is heard in expiration, and in inspiration the sounds fuse to one sound

30

Pericardial friction rub

High-pitched, scratchy extracardiac sound heard when the precordium is inflamed