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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (31):
1

Personality

an individual unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits

2

personality trait

a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations

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common personality traits

1. openness to experience
2. conscientiousness
3. extroversion
4. agreeableness
5. neuroticism (anxiousness, insecure)

4

Psychoanalytical theory
-3 assumptions about personality

1. governed by unconscious forces we cannot control
2. childhood experiences play a significant role
3.shaped by the manner in which we cope with sexual urges

5

personality has 3 structures

1. Id
2. Ego
3. Superego

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Id
-definition
-ex
-type of actions

-pleasure principle; primary process thinking
-demands that we meet our bodily needs
-naturalistic and primitive actions

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Ego
-definition
-ex

-reality principle; secondary process thinking
-creates balance; problem solver

8

superego
-definition
-ex

-moral imperatives
-Don't make a fool of yourself

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concious

contact with outside world

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preconcious

material just beneath the surface of awareness

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unconcious

difficult to retrieve the material; well below the surface of awareness

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what happens when we have an imbalance between the id and superego
-how do we justify it

anxiousness
-by using defense mechanisms

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defense mechanism

-unconsciously distort reality to protect us from anxiety
-1. repression
2. denial
3. projection
4. reaction formation
5. rationalization
6. displacement
7. regression
8. identification

14

Adler's Individual theory
-2

1. striving or superiority
2. use compensation

15

use compensation
-when does inferiority develop
-what may result

-may develop if unsuccessful
-overcompensation

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4 important contributions in the psychodynamic perspective

1. unconcious forces may contribute to personality
2. internal conflict may play a key role in psychological distress
3. early childhood experiences can influence adult personality
4. people do rely on defense mechanisms to reduce unpleasant emotion

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criticism for psychodynamic perspective

1. poor testability
2. unreprestative samples
3. inadequate evidence
4. sexism

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behavioral perspective
-behaviorism
-personality is shaped through 3 things

studies observable behavior
-1. classical conditioning
2. operant conditioning
3. observational learning

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classical conditioning
-definition

a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke

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neutral stimulus

anything that does not elicit a response

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unconditioned response

something you already learned (born with)

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what happens if you break the UCS

extinction
-UCR will stop

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operant conditioning
-definition
-includes

a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences
-reinforcers and punishments

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reinforcers
-definition
-positive reinforcement
-negative reinforcement

-increases behavior
-Giving a dog a treat to sit
-Mom takes away chores because child did hw

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punishments
-definition
-positive punishment
-negative punishment

-decreases behavior
-spanking your child to have him stop crying
-taking away a toy if he is bad

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Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
-type of learning
-requires 3 things
-what is the key

-observational
-1. pay attention to other's behavior
2. understand the consequences that follow others behavior
3. store this info in memory
-self efficacy

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self efficacy

idea that we have the ability to complete a task

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behavioral perspective
-important contributions

-1. rooted in research
2. suggested both personality and situation factors work together to shape behavior

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behavioral perspective
-2 criticisms

1. strict behaviorism doesn't account for cognitive influences
2. relies heavily on animal models

30

humanistic perspectives
-accepts that humans (3)

-1. have an innate drive toward personal growth
2. exercise free will over actions
3. are largely rational beings driven by conscious, not unconscious need

31

maslow's theory of self actualization
-hierarchy of needs

needing lower level needs