Chapter 2 - Science Of Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Science Of Psychology Deck (98)
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1
Q

Nervous System

A
  • Network of nerve cells and fibers carrying information to and from all parts of body.
2
Q

Neuroscience

A
  • Deals with structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue.
3
Q

Neuron

A
  • Basic cells that makes up nervous system and receives and send messages within that system.
4
Q

Dendrite

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  • Branch-like structures that receive messages from other neurons.
5
Q

Soma

A
  • Cell body of neuron, responsible for maintaining a life of cell. (Nucleus)
6
Q

Axon

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  • Long, tube-like structure that carries the neural messages to other cells
7
Q

Axon terminals

A
  • Rounded areas at end of branches -end of axon.
8
Q

Glial Cells

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  • Provide support for neurons to grow on and around. Delivers nutrients to neurons and produces Myelin to coat axons.
9
Q

Myelin

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  • Fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat axon of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse.
  • Clean up waste products and dead neurons.
10
Q

Ions

A
  • Charged particles. (Na+, K+, Cl-)
  • inside neuron, negatively charged
  • outside neuron, positively charged
11
Q

Resting potential

A
  • State of neuron when not firing a neural impulse. (-70mv)
12
Q

Action potential

A
  • Release of neural impulse consisting of a reversal of electrical charge within axon. Allows positive sodium ions to enter cell
13
Q

All-or-none

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  • Neuron fires completely or does not fire at all.
14
Q

Neural impulse action potential

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  • Cell is resting; reaches threshold and action potential is triggered. After a brief hyper-polarization period, cell returns to resting potential.
15
Q

Synaptic Vesicles

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  • Sack-like structures found inside axon terminal containing chemicals.
16
Q

Neurotransmitter

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  • Chemical found in synaptic vesicles, which when released, has an effect on next cell.
17
Q

Synapse/Synaptic Gap

A
  • Microscopic fluid-filled Space between rounded areas on end of axon terminals of one cell and dendrites or service of next cell.
18
Q

Receptor-sites

A
  • Holes in service of dendrite or certain cells of muscles and glands. Shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters.
19
Q

Synapse

A
  • Nerve Impulse reaches axon terminal, triggering release of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles.
  • Molecules of neurotransmitter cross synaptic gap – fit into receptor sites that fit shape of molecule, opening ion channel and allowing sodium ions to Rush in.
20
Q

Excitatory Neurotransmitter

A
  • Causes receiving cell to fire.
21
Q

Inhibitory neurotransmitter

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  • Causes receiving cell to stop firing.
22
Q

Neurotransmitter

A
  • Messengers of network.
23
Q

Agonists

A
  • Mimic/enhance effects of neurotransmitter on receptor sites of next cell, increasing or decreasing activity of that cell.
24
Q

Antagonist

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  • Block/reduce cells response to action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters.
25
Q

Reuptake

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  • Process of neurotransmitters taken back into synaptic vesicles.
26
Q

Enzyme

A
  • Complex protein that is manufactured by cells.
27
Q

Acetylcholine (ACh)

A
  • Excitatory/Inhibitory;

arousal, attention, memory, and controls muscle contractions.

28
Q

Non-epinephrine (NE)

A
  • Mainly excitatory;

control of movement and sensations of pleasure.

29
Q

Serotonin (5-HT)

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  • Excitatory/Inhibitory;

Sleep, mood, anxiety, and appetite.

30
Q

GABA-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

A
  • Major inhibitory neurotransmitter;

Sleep, and inhibits movement.

31
Q

Glutamate

A
  • Major excitatory neurotransmitter;

Learning, memory formation, nervous system development, and synaptic plasticity.

32
Q

Endorphins

A
  • Inhibitory neural regulators;

Pain relief

33
Q

Central nervous system (CNS)

A
  • Part of nervous system consisting of brain and spinal cord.
34
Q

Spinal Cord

A
  • Long bundle of neurons that carries messages to and from body to brain that’s responsible for fast, lifesaving reflexes.
35
Q

Spinal cord reflex

A
  • Pain stimulates afterward nerve fibers, carries messages up to inter neurons in middle spinal cord.
  • interneurons send message out by efferent nerve fibers, causing reflex.
36
Q

Sensory Neuron

A
  • Neuron that carries information from sense to central nervous system. (afferent neuron)
37
Q

Motor neuron

A
  • Neuron carries messages from central nervous system to muscles of body.
    (efferent neuron)
38
Q

Interneuron

A
  • Neuron found in center of spinal cord that receives information from sensory neurons and sends commands to muscles through motor neurons.
  • interneurons make up bulk of neurons in brain.
39
Q

Neuroplasticity

A
  • Ability to constantly change both structure and function of cells in response to experience or trauma.
40
Q

Neurogenesis

A
  • Formation of new neurons.
41
Q

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

A
  • Nerves and neurons that are not contained in brain and spinal cord but run through body itself.
42
Q

Somatic Nervous system - Voluntary

A
  • Division of PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from senses to CNS and from CNS to voluntary muscles of body.
43
Q

Sensory pathway

A
  • Nerves coming from sensory organs to CNS consisting of sensory neurons.
44
Q

Motor pathway

A
  • Nerves coming from CNS to voluntary muscles consisting of motor neurons.
45
Q

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) - Involuntary

A
  • Division of PNS consisting of nerves that control all involuntary muscles, organs, and glands.
46
Q

Sympathetic division

A
  • (Fight or flight) part of ANS that’s responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal.
47
Q

Parasympathetic division

A
  • Part of ANS that restores body to normal functioning after arousal and responsible for day-to-day functioning of organs and glands. (Rest and Digest).
48
Q

Endocrine Glands

A
  • Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into bloodstream.
49
Q

Hormones

A
  • Chemicals released into bloodstream.

- Carries to organs such as, heart, pancreas, and sex organs.

50
Q

Pituitary gland (Master Gland)

A
  • Gland located in brain that secretes (produce/ discharge) human growth hormone and influences all other hormone - secreting glands.
51
Q

Pineal Gland

A
  • Located near base of cerebrum -secretes melatonin.
52
Q

Thyroid gland

A
  • Found in neck - regulates metabolism.

- can mimic psychological disorders.

53
Q

Pancreas gland

A
  • controls levels of sugar in blood.
54
Q

Gonads: Sex glands

A
  • Secrete hormones that regulate sexual development, behavior and reproduction.
  • Ovaries : Female Gonads - Progesterone/ Estrogens
  • Testes : Male gonads - testosterone
55
Q

Adrenal Glands

A
  • Located on top of each kidney.
  • secretes 30+ different hormones to deal with stress, regulate salt intake. (Aldosterone)
  • Provides secondary source of sex hormones affecting sexual changes that occur during adolescence. (Period of puberty to maturity).
56
Q

Hindbrain (brain stem)

A
  • Portion of brain that contains pins, cerebellum, and medulla and is responsible for regulating basic human function.
57
Q

Medulla

A
  • First large swelling at top of spinal cord, forming lowest part of brain.
  • Responsible for life-sustaining functions. Breathing, swallowing, and heart rate.
58
Q

Pons

A
  • larger swelling above medulla that connects top of brain to bottom.
  • Responsible for Sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal.
59
Q

Reticular Formation (RF)

A
  • Area of neurons running through middle of medulla and pons.
  • Responsible for maintaining sleep and wakefulness and making traditions between the two states.
60
Q

Cerebellum

A
  • Part of lower brain located behind pons.

- Controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement. (Balance and coordination of movement.)

61
Q

Limbic system

A
  • Group of several brain structures located under cortex: Amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus.
  • Involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation.
62
Q

Thalamus

A
  • Located in center of brain.
  • relays sensory information from lower part of proper areas of cortex.
  • Correlates several important processes: regulations of Consciousness, sleep, and receives and sends sensory information to cerebral cortex and other parts of brain after processing.
63
Q

Hypothalamus

A
  • Small structure of brain located below thalamus and directly above pituitary gland.
  • Responsible for motivational behavior: Sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex.
64
Q

Hippocampus

A
  • Curved structure located within each temporal lobe.

- Responsible for formation of long-term memories and storage of memory for location of objects.

65
Q

Amygdala

A
  • Located near hippocampus.

- Responsible for emotions, survival instincts, and memory. (Ex. Fear and aggression.)

66
Q

Cingulate Cortex

A
  • Limbic structure found in cortex.
  • Important role in cognitive (mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension) and emotional processing.
67
Q

Cortex

A
  • made up of tightly packed neurons and is the wrinkly (gyrus) outermost layer that surrounds the brain. (Cerebral Cortex)
  • four different lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital - responsible for processing different types of sensory information.
68
Q

Corpus Callosum

A
  • a thick band of nerve fibers ( neurons) joining two hemispheres of the brain. (Right and left.)
69
Q

Occipital Lobe

A
  • Located at rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing visual centers of brain.
  • primary visual cortex: processes visual information from eyes.
  • visual association cortex: identifies and makes sense of visual information.
70
Q

Parietal Lobe

A
  • Sections of brain located at top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations.
71
Q

Somatosensory Cortex

A
  • receives all sensory input from the body.
  • Responsible for processing information from skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, body position, and possibly touch.
72
Q

Temporal lobe

A
  • areas of cortex located just behind temples containing neurons responsible for sense of hearing and meaningful speech.
  • primary auditory cortex:processes auditory information from ears.
  • auditory association cortex: identifies and makes sense of auditory information.
73
Q

Frontal Lobe

A
  • area of cortex located in front and top of brain

- Responsible for higher and mental processes and decision making and production of fluent speech.

74
Q

Motor cortex

A
  • Section of frontal lobe located at back.

- Responsible for sending motor commands to muscles of somatic nervous system.

75
Q

Association areas of cortex

A

-Areas within each lobe of cortex Responsible for coordination and interpretation of information and higher mental processing.

76
Q

Broca’s aphasia

A
  • condition resulting from damage to Broca’s area (Speech production) usually in left frontal lobe.
  • Unable to speak fluently, mispronounces words, and speak haltingly (hesitantly)
77
Q

Wernicke’s aphasia (interpretation of speech)

A
  • Condition from damage to wernicke’s area (usually left temporal lobe).
  • causes person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language.
78
Q

Spatial neglect

A
  • condition produced by damage to association areas of right hemisphere.
  • Results an inability to recognize objects or body parts in left visual field.
79
Q

Cerebrum

A

-Upper part of brain consisting of two hemispheres and structures that connect them.

80
Q

Split-Brain research

A
  • Study of patients with severed (divided) corpus callosum.
  • involves in sending messages to only one side of brain.
  • Demonstrates left and right brain specialization.
81
Q

Left side of brain

A
  • controls right hand, spoken language, writing, logical thought, analysis of detail, and mathematical abilities, reading.
  • Processes information sequentially (forming or following a logical order or sequence.) and enables one to speak.
82
Q

Right side of brain

A
  • controls left hand, emotional expression, non verbal, visual-spatial perception, (aware of relationships with environment and self.) recognition of faces and patterns, music and artistic processing, and emotions.
  • Processes information globally and cannot influence speech.
83
Q

Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

A
  • is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by a combination of inattentiveness, distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
  • more than one cause of brain route to ADHD
  • current research looking at variety of areas.
  • environmental factors as low-level lead exposure.
  • Genetic influences
  • role of heredity and familial factors.
  • personality factors.
84
Q

Diffusion

A
  • Process of molecules moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
85
Q

Enzymatic degradation

A
  • The structure of a neurotransmitter is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor.
86
Q

Afferent (sensory) neuron

A
  • Neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system.
87
Q

Efferent (Motor) Neuron

A
  • Neuron that carries massages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.
88
Q

Reflex

A
  • An involuntary response, one that is not under personal control or choice.
89
Q

Stem cells

A
  • Special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of becoming other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear.
90
Q

Epigenetics

A
  • The interaction between genes and environmental factors that influence gene activity; environmental factors include diet, life experiences, and physical surroundings.
91
Q

Oxytocin

A
  • Hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland that is involved in reproductive and parental behaviors.
92
Q

Ovaries

A
  • The female gonads or sex glands
93
Q

Testes

A
  • The male gonads or sex glands
94
Q

Olfactory Bulbs

A
  • Two bulb-like projections of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells.
95
Q

Mirror neurons

A
  • Neurons that fire when an animal or person performs an action and also observed that same action being performed by another.
96
Q

Cerebral Hemisphere

A
  • The two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain.
97
Q

Biological psychology or behavioral neuroscience

A

-Branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes, behavior, and learning.

98
Q

Nerves

A
  • Bundles of axons costed in myelin that travel together through the body.