Chapter 4 - Consciousness Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Consciousness Deck (62)
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1
Q

Consciousness

A
  • Persons awareness of everything that goes on around them at any given moment.
  • Generated by set of action potentials in communications among neurons.
2
Q

Waking consciousness

A
  • Thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized and person feels alert.
3
Q

Altered state of consciousness

A
  • Shift in quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness.
4
Q

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

A
  • Tiny section of brain (in hypothalamus)that influences Glandular system.
  • internal clock that tells person when to wake and to sleep.
  • Hypothalamus tells pineal gland to secrete melatonin (makes person feel sleepy)
5
Q

Sleep deprivation

A

-Any significant loss of sleep; results in irritability and problems with concentration.

6
Q

Rapid eye movement (REM)

A
  • Eyes move rapidly under eyelids when person is typically experiencing a dream.
7
Q

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

A
  • Allows scientists to see brainwave activity as a person passes through various stages of sleep and to determine what type of sleep person has entered.
8
Q

Alpha waves

A
  • Brain waves that indicate state of relaxation or light sleep.
9
Q

Theta waves

A
  • Brain waves indicating early stages of sleep.
10
Q

Delta waves

A
  • Long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep.
11
Q

N1: Light sleep

A
  • Easiest to wake a person up.
    May experience:
  • Hypnagogic images: hallucinations or vivid visual events.
  • Hypnic Jerk: Knees, legs, or whole body jerks.
12
Q

N2: Sleep Spindles

A
  • Brief bursts of activity only lasting a second or two.
13
Q

N3: Delta Waves

A
  • deepest stage of sleep (50% or more waves are delta waves)

- Body at lowest level of functioning-Time at which growth occurs.

14
Q

R: Rapid eye movement

A
  • REM Sleep is paradoxical Sleep (high level of brain activity).
  • More vivid, detailed, and longer dreams.
15
Q

REM rebound

A

-Increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights.

16
Q

Nightmares

A
  • Bad dreams occurring during REM sleep. More coming in children.
17
Q

REM behavior disorder

A
  • Mechanism that blocks movement of the voluntary muscles fails.
  • Allows person to thrash around, or get up and act out nightmares.
  • may be sign of Parkinson and Alzheimer
18
Q

Night terrors

A
  • Person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep.
  • Doesn’t wake fully.
  • occurs in and up to 56% of young children, decreases with age.
19
Q

Sleepwalking (Somnambulism)

A
  • Episode of moving around or walking around in ones sleep and occurs during deep sleep.
  • More common among the children than adults.
  • Sleepwalking can be a defense against criminal charges.
20
Q

Insomnia

A
  • Inability to get sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep.
21
Q

Sleep apnea

A
  • Disorder in which a person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more.
  • Continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP)
22
Q

Narcolepsy

A
  • Sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning.
  • Cataplexy: sudden loss of muscle tone
23
Q

Restless leg syndrome

A
  • Uncomfortable sensations in legs causing movement and loss of sleep.
24
Q

Nocturnal leg cramps

A
  • painful cramps in calf or foot muscles.
25
Q

Hypersomnia

A
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness.
26
Q

Circadian rhythm disorder

A
  • Disturbances of sleep-wake cycle such as jet lag and shift work.
27
Q

Enuresis

A

-Urinating while asleep in bed.

28
Q

Freud: dreams as wish fulfillment

A
  • Manifest content: the dream it’s self.

- Latent content: true, hidden meaning of a dream.

29
Q

Women dream about

A

-People if they know, personal appearance concerns, issues related to family and home.

30
Q

Men dream about

A
  • Outdoor or unfamiliar settings; may involve weapons, tools, cars, or sexual dreams with unknown partners.
31
Q

Psychoactive drugs (dependence)

A
  • Alter thinking, perception, and memory.
32
Q

Physical dependence

A
  • tolerance: More of drug is needed to achieve same affect.
  • Withdrawal: Physical symptoms resulting from lack of an addictive drug in body systems. (nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure)
33
Q

Brain plays important role in dependency

A
  • Drugs enter brains reward pathway, causing release of dopamine and intense pleasure.
  • Brain tries to adapt by decreasing synaptic receptors for dopamine.
  • more drugs now needed to achieve same pleasure response - drug tolerance.
34
Q

Psychological dependence

A
  • Feeling that drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being.
  • any drug can cause this.
35
Q

Stimulants

A

-Drugs that increase functioning of nerve system.

36
Q

Amphetamines

A

-Drugs that are synthesized (made in labs) rather than found in nature.

37
Q

Cocaine

A
  • natural drug: produces euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure.
38
Q

Nicotine

A
  • active ingredient in tobacco.
39
Q

Caffeine

A
  • stimulant found in coffee, tea, most sodas, chocolate, and many over-the-counter drugs.
40
Q

Depressants

A

-drugs that decrease functioning of nervous system.

41
Q

Barbiturates

A
  • depressant drugs with sedative effect.
42
Q

Benzodiazepines

A
  • lower anxiety and reduce stress.
43
Q

Rohypnol

A
  • “Date rape” drug.
44
Q

Alcohol

A
  • chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter.
  • often mistaken for a stimulate, actually a CNS depressant.
  • most commonly used and abused depressant.
45
Q

Opiates

A

-Suppress sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating nervous systems natural receptor sites for endorphins.

46
Q

Opium

A
  • Substances made from opium poppy and from which all narcotic drugs are derived.
47
Q

Morphine

A

-Narcotic drug derived from opium; used to treat severe pain.

48
Q

Heroin

A
  • narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive.
49
Q

Hallucinogens

A
  • Manufactured highs: developed in labs.

- Drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering perception of reality.

50
Q

LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide)

A
  • Powerful synthetic hallucinogen.
51
Q

PCP

A

Synthesized drug now used as animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulants, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogen effects.

52
Q

MDMA (ecstasy or X)

A
  • designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinating effects.
53
Q

Stimulating hallucinogenics

A

-Drugs producing mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.

54
Q

Marijuana

A
  • Nonmanufatured high: naturally occurring.
  • mild hallucinogen derived from elves and flowers of type of hemp plant.
  • produces feeling of well-being, mild intoxication, mild sensory distortions or hallucinations.
  • Affects reaction time and perception of surroundings.
  • Psychologically addicting.
55
Q

Hypnogogic Hallucination

A
  • can occur just as a person is entering N1 sleep.
56
Q

Hypnopompic hallucination

A
  • happens just as person is in between-state of being in REM sleep (voluntary muscles are paralyzed) and not yet fully awake.
57
Q

Withdrawal

A
  • Physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems.
58
Q

Drug tolerance

A
  • The decrease of the response to a drug over repeated uses, leading to the need for higher doses of drug to achieve the same effect.
59
Q

Sleep paralysis

A
  • The inability of the voluntary muscles to move during REM sleep.
60
Q

Beta waves

A
  • Smaller and faster brain waves, typically indicating mental activity.
61
Q

Non-REM sleep

A

-any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM.

62
Q

Hallucinogenic

A

-drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication.