Chapter 21: Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: Blood Deck (55):
1

What is the Function of Blood?

  • Transportation of....
  • Regulation of.....
  • Protection by.....

 

  • Transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products.
  • Regulation of body temperature , pH, and fluid volume
  • Protection by mounting an immune response and the production of antibodies

2

Composition of Blood ( 3 fractions)

  1.  Erythrocytes 
  2. Buffy Coat
  3. Plasma

3

% Total Blood Volume of: 

1) Erythrocytes

2) Buffy Coat

3) Plasma

1) 44%

2) 1%

3) 55%

4

What is the weight % composition of Plasma

  • 92% = water 
  • 1% = electrolytes
  • 7% = Plasma Proteins 

5

Four different classes of plasma proteins:

  1.  Albumins
  2. Globulins
  3. Fibrinogen
  4. Regulatory

6

Function of Albumins

regulates water movement, transports hormones & lipids

7

3 Types and Function of Globulins

  1. Alpha & Beta: transport water-insoluble molecules
  2. Gamma globulin (immunoglobulins) are antibodies

8

Function of Fibrinogen

converts into fibrin to make clots 

9

Regulatory plasma proteins consist of

Proenzymes & hormones 

10

Define hematocrit

the volume % of all formed elements in one's blood

11

What are the formed elements in one's blood: 

Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and Platelets

12

This formed element is often referred to as red blood cells or RBC's

Erythrocytes

13

Lifespan of erythrocytes

120 days

14

lifespan of platelets 

8-10 days

15

lifespan of leukocytes

12 hours to years

16

Relatively small formed element (7.5 µm in diameter)

Erythrocytes

17

This formed element has a unique bioconcave shape

Erythrocytes

18

Formed element that line up in single file as they pass through small blood vessels. Termed rouleau.

Erythrocytes

19

This formed element contains hemoglobin

Erythrocytes

20

___________ is capable of reversibly transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

Hemoglobin

21

Hemoglobin consists of four globin protein molecules:

  • 2 alpha chains
  • 2 beta chains

22

Each of the four globins possesses a nonprotein ________ group containing an ______ molecule

heme; iron

23

Each hemolglobin molecule can bind a combination of _____ oxygen/carbon dioxide molecules

Four

24

Erythrocytes have ______ _______ projecting from plasma membrane. 

surface antigens

25

The two types of surface antigens

Type A & B

26

Four blood types:

  1. Type A
  2. Type B
  3. Type AB
  4. Type O

27

 Antigen A on erythrocytes PLUS Anti-B antibodies in plasma.

Blood Type?

Type A

28

Antigen B on erythrocytes PLUS Anti-A antibodies in plasma 

 

Blood Type?

Type B

29

Both antigen A and antigen B but no antibodies in plasma

 

Blood Type?

Type AB

30

neither antigen A or B but BOTH Anti-A & Anti-B antibodies

Blood Type?

Type O

31

What is hemolysis

when antibodies in a blood recipent undergo an agglutination reaction with opposite antigen causing transfused erythrocytes to clump together, block blood vessels and rupture. 

32

Universal Blood Donor

Type O, can safely donate to anyone

33

Universal Recipient 

Type AB; Can safely receive blood from anyone

34

Formed element that possess a nucleus and organelles

Leukocytes

35

Formed element that helps initiate an immune response and defend the body against pathogens

Leukocytes

36

Formed element that is 1.5 to 3 times larger than erythrocytes

Leukocytes

37

Formed element capable of leaving the blood vessels, diapedesis, and entering a tissue

Leukocytes

38

Formed element that are attracted to a site of infection by molecules from damaged cells or invading pathogens, referred to as chemotaxis

Leukocytes

39

When is chemotaxis

when leukocytes are attracted to a site of infection by molecules from damaged cells or invading pathogens.

40

Two classifications of Leukocytes

  1. Granulocytes
  2. Agranulocytes

41

Three types of Granulocytes

  1. Neutrophils
  2. Eosinophils
  3. Basophils

42

Two types of Agranulocytes

  1. Lymphocytes
  2. Monocytes

43

The Five types of Leukocytes

  1. Neutrophils
  2. Eosinophils
  3. Basophils
  4. Lymphocytes
  5. Monocytes

44

What type of leukocyte posses these characteristics:

  • ca. 60% of leukocytes
  • Multilobed nucleus w. pale granules
  • Phagocytize bacteria

 

Neutrophils

45

What type of leukocyte posses these characteristics:

  • ca. 3% of leukocytes
  • Bilobed nucleus w. red granules
  • Phagocytize allergens

Eosinophils

46

What type of leukocyte posses these characteristics:

  • ca. 1% of leukocytes
  • Bilobed nucleus w. deep bue-violet granules
  • Release histamine during inflammation

Basophils

47

What type of leukocyte posses these characteristics:

  • ca. 30% of leukocytes
  • Round of slightly dented nucleus 
  • May nearly fill the cel
  • Produce antibodies
  • Attack antigens

Lymphocytes

48

What type of leukocyte posses these characteristics:

  • ca. 6% of leukocytes
  • Kidney-shaped nucleus
  • Abundant cytoplasm
  • Exits blood vessels & becomes  macrophage- phagocytizes pathogens cellular debris, dead cells.

Monocytes

49

List Leukocytes in order of descending abundance 

  • Neutrophils (60%)
  • Lymphocytes (30%)
  • Monocytes (6%)
  • Eosinophils (3%)
  • Basophils (1%)

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas

50

Formed element that are formed from megakaryocytes

Platelets

51

What are megakaryocytes

Irregular membrane-enclosed cellular fragments that represent shed cytoplasm from cells. Precursor to platelets

52

Megakaryocytes are about ___x larger than erthrocytes

15

53

Formed element that are about 1/4 the size of erythrocytes

Platelets

54

Formed element that is invloved in the clotting of blood

Platelets

55

Three components of blood clots

  1. Fibrin
  2. Platelets
  3. Erythrocytes