Chapter 22: Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22: Heart Deck (50):
1

Types of blood vessels in the heart

  • Veins
  • Arteries 

2

Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

arteries

3

blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart

veins

4

the arteries and veins entering and leaving the heart are called:

great vessels

5

Blood flow through the heart is (unidirectional/bidirectional) because of four valves within the heart

Unidirectional

6

The heart generates  _______ ______ through alternate cycles of the heart wall's contraction and relaxation

Blood pressure

7

Define Blood Pressure

the force of blood pushing against the inside walls of blood vessels.

8

Two types of circulations within the cardiovascular system:

  1. Pulmonary
  2. Systemic

9

Describe Pulmonary Circulation

the right side of the heart and the pulmonary arteries and veins ciculates blood to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart.

10

Describe Systemic Circulation

the left side of the heart, arteries and veins circulate blood to most body tissues and back to the right side of the heart.

11

Describe where the heart is located in the body

slightly left of midline, deep to the sternum, in the mediastinum

12

The heart is enclosed within a tough sac called the ____________

pericardium

13

 restricts heart movements so that it moves only slightly within the thorax

Pericardium

14

Two parts of the Pericardium

  • Fibrous pericardium
  • Serous pericardium

15

What is fibrous pericardium

 outer layer covering of tough, dense CT

16

Two layers of serous pericardium:

  1. parietal layer
  2. visceral layer (epicardium)

17

Describe the parietal layer of serous pericardium 

lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium

18

Describe the visceral layer (epicardium) of serous pericardium

covers the outer surface of the heart

19

The small space between the parietal and visceral layers is called the ________ _________.

pericardial cavity

20

Three layers of the heart wall (superficial to deep)

  1. Epicardium
  2. Myocardium
  3. Endocardium

21

Which heart wall layer consists of the visceral layer of the serous pericardium and areolar CT

Epicardium

22

Which heart wall layer is made up of cardiac muscle and is the thickest of the three layers

Myocardium

23

Which heart wall layer is the internal surface of the heart chambers and external surface of the heart valves

Endocardium

24

Cone-shaped muscle projections inside the ventricle called ______ _______

papillary muscles

25

papillary muscles anchor thin strands of strong CT made up of collagen fibers called ________ ________.

chordae tendineae

26

______ are triangular flaps that hang down into the ventricle.

Cusps

27

The ____ ventricular wall is usually three times thicker than the ____ventricular wall

left; right

28

Name the semilunar valves

Pulmonary and Aortic

29

Location of the fibrous skeleton of the heart

between the atria & ventricles

30

what is the composition of the fibrous skeleton of the heart

Dense, regular fibrous CT

31

What are the functions of the fibrous skeleton of the heart

  • Anchor heart valves by forming a supportive ring at their attachment points
  • Electrical insulation between atria and ventricles
  • Rigid framework for attachment of cardiac muscle cells

32

These arteries travel within the coronary sulcus and supply the heart wall muscle with oxygen and nutrients

right and left coronary arteries

33

Name of the only branches given off by the ascending aorta just superior to the semilunar valve:

coronary arteries

34

Right coronary artery branches into:

  1.  Marginal artery
  2. Posterior interventricular artery

35

Left coronary artery branches into:

  1.  Anterior interventricular artery
  2. Circumflex artery

36

Three veins that drain into the coronary sinus vein which drains into the right atrium

  1. Great cardiac vein
  2. Middle cardiac vein
  3. Small cardiac vein

37

__________ is composed of cardiac muscle fibers which are striated & have many similarities to skeletal muscles

myocardium

38

What are the differences between cardiac and skeletal striated muscle?

  • Cardiac: Less extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum with no terminal cisternae
  • Cardiac: Less extensive development of transverse tubules and reduced association of t-tubules with sarcoplasmic reticulum 

39

Specialized cell-cell contact that electrically & mechanically link adjacent cells are called ___________ _______.

Intercalated Discs

40

Located within intercalated discs are: 

Gap junctions

41

_______ muscle fibers contract as a single unit because they are all connected with (high/low) resistance cell-to-cell junctions that permits ion flow and allows action potentials to spread from one cell to the next. 

Cardiac; low

42

Define autorhythmicity

The heart is capable of initiating its own heartbeat independent of external nerves

43

The electrical impulse that initiates the heartbeat

sinoatrial (SA) node or the pacemaker

44

Located on the posterior wall of the right atrium adjacent to the opening of the superior vena cava

SA node or pacemaker

45

SA node generates ____ to ____ impulses per minute at rest

70-80

46

Conducting system of the heart:
1) impulses from the SA node that travel to the left atrium and the ____________ ____ located in the floor of the _______ atrium.

 

atrioventricular node (AV) ; right

47

Conducting system of the heart:

2) Electrical activity leaves the AV node into the _____________ _____, which extends into the interventricular septum.

atrioventricular (AV) bundle

48

Conducting system of the heart:

3) Once within the septum, the AV bundle divides into: 

left and right bundles

49

Conducting system of the heart:

4) Left and right bundles pass the impulse to conduction cell called ______ _____ that begin at the (apex/base) of the heart.

Purkinje fibers; apex 

50

Conducting system of the heart:

5) The ________ ______ spread the impulse superiorly from the apex to all of the ventricular myocardium

Purkinje fibers