Chapter 24: Lymphatic System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 24: Lymphatic System Deck (87):
1

What are the functions of the lymphatic system

(4 functions)

  1. Return interstitial fluid back to the bloodstream
  2. Transport lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream
  3. Production and maturation of lymphocytes
  4. Generate an immune response against antigens in the interstitial fluid

2

What are the components of the Lymphatic System

(8 components)

  1. Lymph
  2. Lymphatic capillaries
  3. Lymphatic vessels
  4. Lymphatic trunks
  5. Lymphatic ducts
  6. Lymphatic cells
  7. Lymphatic nodules ​
  8. Lymphatic organs

3

What is a lymph​ comprised of

  • Interstitial fluid
  • Solutes
  • Foreign materials

4

Life cycle & name changes of a lymph:

1. ________ flowing in blood capillaries is pushed out of capillaries by blood pressure

Plasma

5

Life cycle & name changes of a lymph:

2. Once out of the capillaries, plasma becomes mixed with ________ _____ surrounding all of the cells

 

Interstitial fluid

6

Life cycle & name changes of a lymph:

3. When taken up by lymphatic capillaries it becomes _______ and it passes through lymphatic 'vessels' to ________ _____ where it is filtered and where immune cells detect _______.

lymph; lymph nodes; antigens

7

Life cycle & name changes of a lymph:

4. Lymphatic vessels merge to form ______ which fuse to become _____

trunks; ducts

8

Life cycle & name changes of a lymph:

5. Returned by one of two lymphatic ducts to the subclavian veins where it is again called _____.

 

plasma

9

closed-ended tubes that are found interspersed among most blood capillary beds.

Lymphatic capillaries

10

Resemble blood capillaries but they have overlapping endothelial cells that act as one-way valves allowing interstitial fluid a one-way entrance into this type of capillary: 

Lymphatic capillaries 

11

Describe Lacteals

lymphatic capillary that collects interstitial fluid as well as lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins

12

Where are lacteals found?

GI tract

13

Lymph collected from GI system has a milky color due to the lipid absorption called _____

chyle

14

Lymphatic capillaries merge to form _______ _______

lymphatic vessels

15

How are lymphatic vessels similar to venules?

They have components of all three vascular tunics and possess valves similar to veins

16

Describe afferent lymphatic vessels

Bring lymph to a lymph node

17

Describe efferent lymphatic vessels

transport filtered lymph away from the lymph node

18

Lymphatic vessels merge to form left and right ___________ __________

lymphatic trunks

19

Three types of left and right trunks:

  1. Jugular trunks
  2. Subclavian trunks
  3. Bronchomediastinal trunks

20

Which lymphatic trunk drains lymph from the head and neck?

Jugular trunks

21

Which lymphatic trunk drains lymph from upper limbs

Subclavian trunks

22

Which lymphatic trunk drains lymph from breasts?

subclavian trunks

23

Which lymphatic trunk drains lymph from the superficial thoracic wall

subclavian trunks

24

Which lymphatic trunk drains lymph from deep thoracic structures​.

bronchomediastinal trunks

25

Which lymphatic trunk drains lymph from most abdominal structures

Intestinal trunks

26

Which lymphatic trunk drains lymph from lower limbs

Lumbar trunks

27

Which lymphatic trunk drains lymph from the abdominopelvic wall

Lumbar trunks

28

Which lymphatic trunk drains lymph from pelvic organs.

Lumbar trunks

29

As lymphatic trunks fuse, they form ______ ______.

Lymphatic ducts

30

Which lymphatic vessel is located deep to the right clavicle and returns at the junction of the right subclavian and internal jugular veins. Then returns lymph from the right side of the head and neck, right upper limb and the right side of the thorax 

right lymphatic duct

31

Largest lymphatic vessel

thoracic duct

32

duct that begins just inferior to the diaphragm as a rounded saclike structure called cisterna chyli

Thoracic duct

33

The thoracic ducts have a rounded sac-like structure just inferior to the diaphragm called the _____ _____.

cisterna chyli

34

The thoracic duct passes through the aortic opening of the diaphragm and returns into the junction between the left ______ and ______ ______ veins.

subclavian; internal jugular

35

_______ _______ collects lymph from most of the body.

Thoracic duct

36

Oval clusters of lymphatic cells with some extracellular matrix but not surrounded by a connective tissue capsule

lymphatic nodules

37

The center of a nodule is called the ______ _______, which contains _____________ and ____________.

germinal center; ß-lymphocytes; macrophages

38

______________ are located outside the germinal center

T-lymphocytes

39

What do lymphatic nodules do?

filter and attack antigens

40

List the different forms of lymphatic nodules:

  1. Lymphatic nodules
  2. MALT (including Peyer patches)
  3. Tonsils

41

Which lymphatic nodules are located in the mucosa (inner layer) of the gastrointestinal tract

MALT

42

Which lymphatic nodules are located in the mucosa (inner layer) of the respiratory tract

MALT

43

Which lymphatic nodules are located in the mucosa (inner layer) of the genital tracts

MALT

44

Which lymphatic nodules are located in the mucosa (inner layer) of the urinary tract

MALT

45

What does Mucosa-Associated Lymphatic Tissue (MALT) do?

monitors and responds to antigens that may enter via, food, air, or urine

46

MALT nodules very prominent in the ileum are referred to as ________ ________.

Peyer patches

47

Where are tonsils located?

mainly in the Pharynx 

48

Located in pharynx: Large clusters of lymphatic cells and extracellular matrix that do not have completed surrounding capsules are called _______

tonsils

49

Tonsils outer edges are invaginated to form crypts, which allow for trapping of ________ to be presented to the lymphocytes.

antigens

50

What are the three types of tonsils:

  1. Pharyngeal tonsils
  2. Palatine tonsils
  3. Lingual tonsils

51

These tonsils are located in the posterosuperior wall of the nasopharynx

Pharyngeal tonsils

52

These tonsils are located in the posterolateral wall of the oral cavity

Palatine tonsils

53

These tonsils are located along the posterior one-third of the tongue

lingual tonsils

54

_____________ _________ consists of lymphatic cells and extracellular matrix and is completely surrounded by a connective tissue capsule

Lymphatic organs

55

List the three main lymphatic organs:

  1. Thymus
  2. Lymph nodes
  3. Spleen

56

Which lymphatic organ is a bilobed organ located superficial to the heart

Thymus

57

Which lymphatic organ consists of two fused thymic lobes, which are divided into lobules

Thymus

58

The thymus consists of two fused ______ _____ which are divided into ________

thymic lobes; lobules

59

In the Thymus, each lobule has an outer ______ and an inner ______

cortex; medulla

60

Which lymphatic organ continues to grow until puberty and then begins to regress in size and function and, in adults, becomes replaced mostly by adipose CT

Thymus

61

Which lymphatic organ is the site of T-lymphocyte differentiation and maturation

Thymus

62

Which lymphatic organ has a cortex that contains immature T-lymphocytes

Thymus

63

Which lymphatic organ has a medulla that contains mature T-lymphocytes

Thymus

64

At the Thymus, the cortex contains _______ T-lymphocytes, while the medulla contains ________ T-lymphocytes.

immature; mature

65

True or False:
At the Thymus, in adulthood T-lymphocytes can only be produced by cell division. 

True

66

True or False:

At the Thymus, in adulthood T-lymphocytes can only be produced by maturation of new cells in the thymus

False

67

Which lymphatic organ are small, kidney-shaped organs that cluster around lymphatic vessels

Lymph nodes

68

There are (hundreds/thousands/millions) of lymph nodes within the body

Hundreds

69

What three areas within the body will you find large concentrations of lymph nodes:

  1. Neck
  2. Armpit
  3. Groin

70

What do lymph nodes do?

cleanse the lymph traveling within lymphatic vessels

71

A lymph node is surrounded by an outer capsule. Internally, the lymph node consists of an outer _______ and an inner ______.

cortex; medulla

72

In lymph nodes, the cortex contains many _______ _______

lymphatic nodules

73

In lymph nodes, the medulla collects the ______ after it passes the cortex.

lymph

74

Which lymphatic organ initiates an immune response when antigens are found in the blood

Spleen

75

Which lymphatic organ serves as a reservoir for erythrocytes and platelets

spleen

76

Which lymphatic organ phagocytizes old, defective erythrocytes and platelets

Spleen

77

Which lymphatic organ phagocytizes bacteria and other foreign materials

spleen

78

Which lymphatic organ monitors blood for antigens

spleen

79

Which lymphatic organ is the largest lymphatic organ in the body, located just lateral to the left kidney

Spleen

80

Which lymphatic organ  is surrounded by dense irregular CT, called capsule

Spleen

81

What is the inner layer of the spleen called

white pulp

82

What is the outer layer of the spleen called 

red pulp

83

The inner layer of the spleen, white pulp, is associated with (arterial/venous)​ supply.

arterial

84

The outer layer of the spleen, red pulp, is associated with (arterial/venous) supply.

venous

85

In the spleen the (inner/outer) layer, the (red/white) pulp is composed of clusters of T- and B- lymphocytes and macrophages

inner; white 

86

In the spleen the (inner/outer) layer, the (red/white) pulp is composed of splenic cords & sinusoids, contains erythrocytes, platelets, macrophages, and some plasma cells 

outer; red

87

Which lymphatic organ can blood cells easily enter and leave the blood stream because of the discontinuous basal lamina of the capillaries? 

Spleen