Chapter 27: Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 27: Urinary System Deck (90):
1

What are the functions of the urinary system?

  • Removal of waste products from the bloodstream
  • Production, storage, and excretion of urine
  • Blood volume regulation
  • Regulation of erythrocyte production

2

What structures make up the urinary system

  • Kidneys
  • ureters
  • urinary bladder
  • urethra

3

Which urinary organ is responsible for filtering blood and processing filtrate into tubular fluid, then urine

kidneys

4

Which urinary organ is responsible for transporting urine from kidney to urinary bladder via peristalsis

Ureters

5

Which urinary organ is the reservoir for urine until micturition occurs

bladder

6

Which urinary organ transports urine from urinary bladder to outside of the body

Urethra 

7

The kidney is divided into an outer ____ ______ and an inner _____ _____

renal cortex; renal medulla

8

Extensions of the renal cortex is called ________ _______, which project into the renal medulla and subdivide the medulla into ______ ________

renal columns; renal pyramids 

9

Blood enters kidneys by the:

renal arteries

10

Renal arteries branch into:

segmental arteries

11

Segmental arteries branch into: 

interlobar arteries 

12

Interlobar arteries branch into:

arcuate arteries

13

Arcuate arteries branch into:

interlobular arteries 

14

efferent arterioles branch into one of two capillary networks which are:

Pertibular capillaries

or 

Vasa recta

15

Pertibular capillaries surround:

while Vasa recta surrounds: 

Convoluted tubules; nephron loop

16

 

The smallest veins of kindey are: 

 

interlobular veins

17

Interlobular veins merge to form:

arcuate veins

 

18

Pertibular capillaries & casa recta drain into a network of veins:

 

arcuate veins merge to form the:

interlobar veins

19

Pertibular capillaries & casa recta drain into a network of veins:

 

Interlobar veins merge in the renal sinus to form the

renal vein

20

What is a nephron?

the functional filtration unit of the kidney

21

Nephrons form urine through three interrelated processes:

  • FIltration
  • Tubular reabsorption
  • tubular sercretion

22

The final product of the nephrons processes is

urine

23

List the two types of Nephrons:

  1. Cortical nephrons
  2. Juxtamedullary nephrons

24

Which type of nephron makes up about 85% of all nephrons?

Cortical nephrons

25

Which type of nephron has the bulk of itself reside in the kidney cortex 

Cortical nephrons 

26

which type of nephron has only a small amount of its structure in the kidney medulla

cortical nephrons

27

Which type of nephron has their renal corpuscle that lies near the corticomedullary junction

juxtamedullary nephrons

28

Which type of nephron has their long nephron loops extend deep into the medulla

juxtamedullary nephrons

29

What is a nephron comprised of (5 parts):

  1. Renal corpuscle 
  2. Proximal convoluted tubule
  3. nephron loop 
  4. Distal convoluted tubule 
  5. collecting duct

30

What is the renal corpuscle composed of:

  1. glomerular capsule
  2. glomerulus

31

The renal corpuscle has two poles which are:

  • vascular pole
  • tubular pole

32

The vascular pole of corpuscle is where (afferent/efferent) arteriole enters and (afferent/efferent) arteriole exits

afferent; efferent

33

The _____ ______ is where the proximal convoluted tubule exits

tubular pole

34

The wide base of the renal pyramid makes contact with the cortex in a region called the:

corticomedullary junction

35

The Glomerular Capsule is comprised of two layers:

  1. Visceral Layer
  2. Parietal Layer

36

Located between the two layer of the glomerular capsule is 

capsular space

37

Which layer in the glomerular capsule directly overlies and comes in contact with the glomerulus

Visceral Layer

38

Which layer in the glomerular capsule is comprised of specialized cells called podocytes?

Visceral Layer

39

Which layer in the glomerular capsule is formed from a simple squamous epithelium and adheres to the capsule?

Parietal Layer

40

Podocytes have long processes called _____ that wrap around the glomerular capillaries but do not completely ensheathe it.

pedicels

41

pedicels are separated from each other by then spaces called:

filtration slits

42

What makes up the filtration membrane in Podocytes?

filtration slits and fenestrated capillary 

43

Where does the proximal convoluted tubule begin?

tubular pole of renal corpuscle

44

What are the walls of PCT comprised of 

simple cuboidal epithelium with tall microvili

45

What happens in the PCT?

cells reabsorb water & almost all nutrients leaked through the filtration membrane, enter the peritubular capillaries and, returned to the general circulation in the vascular system

46

The nephron loop projects into the:

medulla

47

What are the two limbs of the nephron loop?

  1. Ascending limb
  2. Descending limb

48

Which limb of the nephron loop extends from the cortex into the medulla 

descending limb

49

which limb of the nephron loop returns from the medulla into the cortex

50

What does the nephron loop do?

facilitates reabsorption of water and solutes

51

Where is the distal convoluted tube (DCT) found

renal cortex

52

What does the DCT do?

secretes K+ and H+ from peritubular capillaries into tubular fluid

53

The DCT delivers to:

collecting ducts

54

Collecting ducts merge to form:

papillary ducts

55

Papillary ducts open at the end of _____ ____, depositing ____ into a _____ _____

renal papilla; urine, minor calyx

56

Name this nephron part:

Capillary ball or tuft covered by podocytes and surrounded by an epithelial tissue; capsular space is between the two layers of capsule 

Renal corpuscle 

57

Name this nephron part:

Tubule lined with simple cuboidal epithelium; has a prominent brush border (microvilli); cytoplasm tends to stain more brightly 

Proximal convoluted tubule 

58

Name this nephron part:

Tubule that forms a loop; has a thick and thin ascending and descending portions; most distal part of the loop often extends into the medulla. 

Thick limbs are lined with simple cuboidal epithelium

Thin limbs are lined with simple squamous epithelium

Nephron Loop

59

Name this nephron part:

Tubule lined with simple cuboidal epithelium with only a sparse brush border; cytoplasm of cell tends to be pale

Distal Convoluted Tubule 

60

____________ _______ is important in regulation of blood pressure

juxtaglomerular apparatus

61

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus comprised of?

  • juxtaglomerular cells
  • macula densa 

62

which component of the juxtaglomerular apparatus is modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole

juxtaglomerular cells

63

which component of the juxtaglomerular apparatus is a group of modified epithelial cells in the distal convoluted tubule 

macula densa

64

List the components of the urinary tract

  • Ureters
  • urinary bladder
  • urethra

65

Which component of the urinary tract are fibromuscular tubes that conduct urine from kidney to urinary bladder

Ureters

66

Which component of the urinary tract originates at the renal pelvis as it exits the hilum of the kidney then enters the posterolateral wall of the base of the urinary bladder

ureters

67

What are the three layers of the ureters?

  1. Mucosa
  2. Muscularis 
  3. Adventitia 

68

What is the main function of the urinary bladder?

to hold urine

69

where is the urinary bladder located

immediately posterior to pubic symphysis

70

In females, the urinary bladder lies anteroinferior to the _______ and directly anterior to the ______

uterus; vagina

71

In males, the urinary bladder lies anterior to the ________ and superior to the ______ ____

rectum; prostate gland

72

What part of the urinary bladder is defined by the two ureteral opening and the urethral opening?

Trigone

73

Name the four tunics that form the wall of the urinary bladder

  1. Mucosa
  2. Submucosa
  3. Muscularis
  4. Adventitiia 

74

Which tunic of the urinary bladder is comprised of transitional epithelium that lines the internal surface of the bladder

Mucosa

75

Which tunic of the urinary bladder supports the urinary bladder wall

submucosa

76

Which tunic of the urinary bladder has three layers of smooth muscle called detrusor muscle

Muscularis

77

The three layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis is called:

detrusor muscle

78

which tunic of the urinary bladder consists of an outer layer of areolar CT

adventitia

79

A fibromuscular tube that originates at the neck of the urinary bladder and conducts urine to the exterior of the body is called a:

urethra

80

What two sphincters control the release of urine from the urinary bladder into the urethra?

  1. internal urethral sphincter
  2. external urethral sphincter

81

What is the internal urethral sphincter comprised of?

involuntary, thickened detrusor muscle

82

What is the external urethral sphincter comprised of?

voluntary, skeletal muscle 

83

Female urethra function?

transporting urine to the exterior of the body

84

How many segments make up the female urethra? and what type of cells would you find there

one; stratified squamous epithelium 

85

Male urethra function?

  • Transports urine and semen (urinary and reproductive )

86

How many segments make up the male urethra and name them

Three;

  1. prostatic urethra
  2. membranous urethra
  3. spongy urethra 

87

Type of cells found in prostatic urethra

transitional epithelium

88

Type of cells found in  membranous urethra 

stratified columnar epithelium 

89

Type of cells found in ​spongy urethra 

pseudostratified columnar epithelium & stratified squamous 

90

The end of the male urethra is referred to as:

external urethral orifice