What do the organs in the digestive system do
- ingest the food
- transport ingested material
- digest the material into smaller usable components
- absorb the nutrients into the blood stream
- expel waste products from the body
What are the two categories of organs in the digestive system?
- Digestive organs
- Accessory digestive organs
The digestive organs is collectively made up of the _____________ _______.
What organs make up the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
- Oral cavity
- small intestine
- large intestine
What organs make up the accessory digestive tract
- Salivary glands
- Gall bladder
What are the functions of the Digestive system
Which function of the digestive system moves food through the digestive system
In the digestive function propulsion, swallowing is (voluntary/involuntary); all subsequent propulsion occurs (voluntarily/involuntarily)
Which function of the digestive system produces mucus, acid, bile, and enzymes that are added to the lumen of the digestive tract
Which function of the digestive system facilitates digestion or propulsion
Which function of the digestive system allows for the passage of the broken-down nutrients into the bloodstream, so they can be delivered to all of the body's cells.
Which function of the digestive system deals with the components of food that cannot be digested or absorbed and as a result are expelled from the body by way of defecation.
The two types of movement from propulsion of food along the GI tube are:
The ripple-like wave of muscular contraction that forces material to move further along the GI tract is known as _______
The churning and mixing of material helping to disperse the material and mix it and combine it with digestive organ secretions is known as __________
List the structural features of the oral cavity:
- cheeks, lips, and palate
- salivary glands
Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity form its lateral wall and are comprised mainly of the buccinator muscles.
Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity end anteriorly as the lips
Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity have gingivae covering its alveolar processes
The internal surface of the upper and lower lips are attached to the gingivae by a thin, midline mucosa fold called the ______ _______.
Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity form the roof of the oral cavity
In the oral cavity, the anterior 2/3 of the palate is called the ______ ______ because it is comprised of _______
hard palate; bone
In the oral cavity, the posterior 1/3 of the palate is called the _____ _____, because it is soft and muscular.
In the oral cavity, extending from the soft palate posteriorly is the _____.
What is the function of the uvula?
it elevates during swallowing and closes off the posterior entrance to the nasopharynx.
The ________ represent the opening from the oral cavity to the oropharynx
The _______ ______ are housed laterally to the fauces
Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity manipulates and mixes ingested materials during chewing
Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity helps compress the partially digested materials into a bolus
What is a bolus?
a globular mass of ingested materials that can be easily swallowed
The inferior surface of the tongue attaches to the floor of the oral cavity by a thin, midline mucous membrane called the:
What is the entrance to the GI tract
Which digestive organ is the only one that functions in indigestion
The oral cavity also begins the process of __________ digestion, _________ digestion, and __________
chemical; mechanical; propulsion
List the boundaries of the oral cavity:
- Anterior boundary
- Posterior boundary
- Lateral boundaries
- Superior boundary
- Inferior boundary
What makes up the anterior boundary of the oral cavity?
Lips (obicularis oris muscle)
What makes up the posterior boundary of the oral cavity
What makes up the lateral boundaries of the oral cavity
cheeks (buccinator muscles)
What makes up the superior boundary of the oral cavity?
hard and soft palate
What makes up the inferior boundary of the oral cavity?
tongue (rests on mylohyoid muscle)
What secrets saliva into the oral cavity by the way of ducts?
Describe the functions of saliva (steps of saliva)
- begins chemical digestion of starts using the enzyme amylase
- moistens food to be easily swallowed
- mouth is cleaned by lysozyme (an antibacterial agent)
- saliva dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted
How many pairs of salivary glands are there?
What are the three pairs of salivary glands?
- Parotid salivary glands
- Submandibular salivary glands
- Sublingual salivary glands
List the % of saliva secreted by each salivary gland:
- Parotid = 30%
- Submanidubular = 65%
- Sublingual = 5%
Which salivary gland is located just anterior and inferior to the ears
Parotid salivary gland
Which salivary gland is the largest?
In ______ salivary glands, ______ ______ opens above upper second upper molar
parotid; parotid duct
Which salivary gland is located just inferior to the body of the mandible
submandibular salivary gland
In _______ salivary glands, the _______ _____ opens lateral to the lingual frenum
submandibular; submandibular duct
Which salivary gland is located inferior to the tongue?
sublingual salivary gland
Multiple ________ _______ open posterior to submandibular duct
The ______ aids in both mechanical and chemical digestion
What structure grips food and repositions it between the teeth and palate during mastications
what structure mixes food with saliva
a moistened ball of chewed food is referred to as:
The tongue contains many ______, projections that aid in gripping the food and that also contain taste buds
The tongue initiates the process of ______ by pushing the bolus of food back toward the pharynx during ________ (swallowing)
The common passageway for both food and air
The pharynx functions in _______ from the oral cavity to the esophagus
In the pharynx, only the ______ and _____ _______ are involved with the digestive system
oropharynx ; inferior laryngopharynx
The ____ _______ is sealed off by way of the uvula during deglutition
What are the three phases of swallowing?
The walls of the GI tract organs consist of four tissue layers:
- Serosa (or adventitia)
Which wall of the GI tract is the innermost layer, surrounding the lumen
Which wall of the GI tract is generally comprised of simple columnar epithelium with interspersed goblet cells
What are the three components of Mucosa?
- Lamina propria (areolar CT + capillaries)
- Muscularis mucosa ( thin layer of smooth muscle)
Which wall of the GI tract is external to the mucosa
Which wall of the GI tract is comprised of areolar or dense irregular CT
Which wall of the GI tract has many large vessels & lymph vessels
Which wall of the GI tract has a submucosal nerve plexus?
Which wall of the GI tract consists of two layers of smooth muscle that move substance through the GI tract
Which wall of the GI tract has an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer that alternately contract and relax to produce peristalsis
The muscularis has an (inner/outer) circular layer and an (inner/outer) longitudinal layer
Which wall of the GI tract has a myenteric nerve plexus located between its two layers of smooth muscle
In the muscularis, what is located in between the two layers of smooth muscle?
myenteric nerve plexus
Which wall of the GI tract is the outermost layer
Serosa or aventitia
Which wall of the GI tract is composed of areolar CT, with collagen and elastin fibers
Which wall of the GI tract is covered with visceral peritoneum
Intraperitoneal organs have ______ as their outer layer
Retroperitoneal organs have _______ as their outer layer because they are only partially covered with parietal peritoneum
when is tissue called "serosa"?
if covered with visceral peritoneum
When is tissue called "adventitia"
when composed of areolar CT, with collagen and elastin fibers
What branches supply the abdominal GI tract
- Celiac trunk
- Superior and inferior mesenteric arteries
Smaller branches extend throughout the walls of the GI tract organs within the tunics, and the mucosa contains ___________ ___ __ _____ _________ ____ to protome _________
capillaries that have fenestrated endothelial cells; absorption
The veins from the mucosa merge to eventually form the:
hepatic portal system
Lymphatic capillaries arise in the mucosa and lacteals within _______ _____, pass through the numerous _______ ___, and deliver ____ to the ________ _____ and then to the ______ _____.
intestinal villi; lymph nodes; lymph, cisterna chyli ; thoracic duct
This structure is a long tube that runs behind the trachea and connects the laryngopharynx superiorly to the stomach inferiorly
the esophagus functions solely in _______
True or False:
Digestion and absorption occur in the esophagus
________ carries food to the stomach
What type of epithelial cells does the mucosa of the esophagus consist of
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
What is the function of the mucosa non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium in the esophagus
At the connection of the esophagus to the stomach, a thickened band of circular smooth muscle forms the:
What does the esophageal sphincter do?
regulates the passage of the bolus into the stomach and keep stomach acids out of the esophagus
In the esophagus, the superior region of the muscularis is composed of:
In the esophagus, the middle region is composed of:
a mixture of skeletal and smooth muscle
In the esophagus, the inferior region of the esophagus is composed of:
more standard smooth muscle
What does the muscularis of the esophagus deviate from a standard pattern of smooth muscle
because skeletal muscle contracts more rapidly and can then assure rapid movement of food out of the pharynx before the next respiratory cycle
This organ is temporary storage in which the bolus of food is chemically and mechanically digested
The mucosa of the stomach consists of ______ _____
what is the function of gastric folds?
to allow the stomach to expand as it fills
The stomach has three muscularis layers:
inner oblique layer
middle oblique layer
outer longitudinal layer
What is the function of the three muscularis layers of the stomach
to churn food to mechanically digest it
When food leaves the stomach and goes to its liquid form, it is then referred to as:
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