Chapter 26: Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 26: Digestive System Deck (106):
1

What do the organs in the digestive system do

  • ingest the food
  • transport ingested material
  • digest the material into smaller usable components
  • absorb the nutrients into the blood stream
  • expel waste products from the body

2

What are the two categories of organs in the digestive system?

  1. Digestive organs
  2. Accessory digestive organs

3

The digestive organs is collectively made up of the _____________ _______.

gastrointestinal tract

4

What organs make up the gastrointestinal (GI) tract

  1. Oral cavity
  2. pharynx
  3. esophagus
  4. stomach
  5. small intestine
  6. large intestine

5

What organs make up the accessory digestive tract

  1. Teeth 
  2. Tongue
  3. Salivary glands
  4. Liver
  5. Gall bladder
  6. Pancreas 

6

What are the functions of the Digestive system

  1. ingestion
  2. digestion
  3. propulsion
  4. secretion
  5. absorption
  6. elimination

7

Which function of the digestive system moves food through the digestive system 

Propulsion

8

In the digestive function propulsion, swallowing is (voluntary/involuntary); all subsequent propulsion occurs (voluntarily/involuntarily)

voluntary; involuntarily

9

Which function of the digestive system produces mucus, acid, bile, and enzymes that are added to the lumen of the digestive tract

Secretion

10

Which function of the digestive system facilitates digestion or propulsion

Secretion

11

Which function of the digestive system allows for the passage of the broken-down nutrients into the bloodstream, so they can be delivered to all of the body's cells.

Absorption

12

Which function of the digestive system deals with the components of food that cannot be digested or absorbed and as a result are expelled from the body by way of defecation.

Elimination

13

The two types of movement from propulsion of food along the GI tube are:

  1. Peristalsis
  2. Segmentation

14

The ripple-like wave of muscular contraction that forces material to move further along the GI tract is known as _______

Peristalsis

15

The churning and mixing of material helping to disperse the material and mix it and combine it with digestive organ secretions is known as __________

Segmentation

16

List the structural features of the oral cavity:

  • cheeks, lips, and palate
  • tongue
  • salivary glands
  • teeth

17

Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity form its lateral wall and are comprised mainly of the buccinator muscles. 

cheeks

18

Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity end anteriorly as the lips

cheeks

19

Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity have gingivae covering its alveolar processes 

teeth

20

The internal surface of the upper and lower lips are attached to the gingivae by a thin, midline mucosa fold called the ______ _______.

labial frenulum 

21

Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity form the roof of the oral cavity

palate

22

In the oral cavity, the anterior 2/3 of the palate is called the ______ ______ because it is comprised of _______

hard palate; bone

23

In the oral cavity, the posterior 1/3 of the palate is called the  _____ _____, because it is soft and muscular.

soft palate

24

In the oral cavity, extending from the soft palate posteriorly is the _____.

uvula

25

What is the function of the uvula?

it elevates during swallowing and closes off the posterior entrance to the nasopharynx.

26

The ________ represent the opening from the oral cavity to the oropharynx

fauces

27

The _______ ______ are housed laterally to the fauces

palatine tonsils

28

Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity manipulates and mixes ingested materials during chewing 

tongue

29

Which structural feature(s) of the oral cavity helps compress the partially digested materials into a bolus

tongue

30

What is a bolus?

a globular mass of ingested materials that can be easily swallowed

31

The inferior surface of the tongue attaches to the floor of the oral cavity by a thin, midline mucous membrane called the:

lingual frenulum

32

What is the entrance to the GI tract

oral cavity

33

Which digestive organ is the only one that functions in indigestion

oral cavity 

34

The oral cavity also begins the process of __________ digestion, _________ digestion, and __________

chemical; mechanical; propulsion

35

List the boundaries of the oral cavity:

  • Anterior boundary
  • Posterior boundary
  • Lateral boundaries
  • Superior boundary
  • Inferior boundary

36

What makes up the anterior boundary of the oral cavity?

Lips (obicularis oris muscle)

37

What makes up the posterior boundary of the oral cavity

oropharynx 

38

What makes up the lateral boundaries of the oral cavity

cheeks (buccinator muscles)

39

What makes up the ​superior boundary of the oral cavity?

hard and soft palate

40

What makes up the inferior boundary of the oral cavity?

tongue (rests on mylohyoid muscle)

41

What secrets saliva into the oral cavity by the way of ducts?

salivary glands

42

Describe the functions of saliva (steps of saliva)

  • begins chemical digestion of starts using the enzyme amylase
  • moistens food to be easily swallowed
  • mouth is cleaned by lysozyme (an antibacterial agent)
  • saliva dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted  

 

43

How many pairs of salivary glands are there?

Three

44

What are the three pairs of salivary glands?

  1. Parotid salivary glands
  2. Submandibular salivary glands
  3. Sublingual salivary glands

45

List the % of saliva secreted by each salivary gland:

1. Parotid

2. Submandibular 

13. Sublingual

 

  1. Parotid = 30%
  2. Submanidubular = 65%
  3. Sublingual = 5%

46

Which salivary gland is located just anterior and inferior to the ears

Parotid salivary gland

47

Which salivary gland is the largest?

Parotid

48

In ______ salivary glands, ______ ______ opens above upper second upper molar 

parotid; parotid duct

49

Which salivary gland is located just inferior to the body of the mandible

submandibular salivary gland

50

In _______ salivary glands, the _______ _____ opens lateral to the lingual frenum

submandibular; submandibular duct

51

Which salivary gland is located inferior to the tongue?

sublingual salivary gland

52

Multiple ________ _______ open posterior to submandibular duct

submandibular ducts

53

The ______ aids in both mechanical and chemical digestion

tongue

54

What structure grips food and repositions it between the teeth and palate during mastications

tongue

 

55

what structure mixes food with saliva

tongue

56

a moistened ball of chewed food is referred to as:

a bolus

57

The tongue contains many ______, projections that aid in gripping the food and that also contain taste buds

papillae

58

The tongue initiates the process of ______ by pushing the bolus of food back toward the pharynx during ________ (swallowing)

propulsion; deglutition

59

The common passageway for both food and air

phayrnx

60

The pharynx functions in _______ from the oral cavity to the esophagus

propulsion

61

In the pharynx, only the ______ and _____ _______ are involved with the digestive system

oropharynx ; inferior laryngopharynx 

62

The ____ _______ is sealed off by way of the uvula during deglutition

superior nasopharynx

63

What are the three phases of swallowing?

  1. Voluntary
  2. Pharyngeal
  3. Esophageal

64

The walls of the GI tract organs consist of four tissue layers:

  1. Mucosa
  2. Submucosa
  3. Muscularis
  4. Serosa (or adventitia)

65

Which wall of the GI tract is the innermost layer, surrounding the lumen

Mucosa

66

Which wall of the GI tract is generally comprised of simple columnar epithelium with interspersed goblet cells

mucosa

67

What are the three components of Mucosa?

  1. Epithelium
  2. Lamina propria (areolar CT + capillaries)
  3. Muscularis mucosa ( thin layer of smooth muscle)

68

Which wall of the GI tract is external to the mucosa

submucosa

69

Which wall of the GI tract is comprised of areolar or dense irregular CT

Submucosa

70

Which wall of the GI tract has many large vessels & lymph vessels

submucosa

71

Which wall of the GI tract has a submucosal nerve plexus?

submucosa

72

Which wall of the GI tract consists of two layers of smooth muscle that move substance through the GI tract

Muscularis

73

Which wall of the GI tract has an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer that alternately contract and relax to produce peristalsis

Muscularis

74

The muscularis has an (inner/outer) circular layer and an (inner/outer)​ longitudinal layer

inner; outer

75

Which wall of the GI tract has a myenteric nerve plexus located between its two layers of smooth muscle

muscularis

76

In the muscularis, what is located in between the two layers of smooth muscle?

myenteric nerve plexus

77

Which wall of the GI tract is the outermost layer

Serosa or aventitia

78

Which wall of the GI tract is composed of areolar CT, with collagen and elastin fibers

adventitia

 

79

Which wall of the GI tract is covered with visceral peritoneum

Serosa

80

Intraperitoneal organs have ______ as their outer layer

Serosa 

81

Retroperitoneal organs have _______ as their outer layer because they are only partially covered with parietal peritoneum

adventitia

82

when is tissue called "serosa"?

if covered with visceral peritoneum

83

When is tissue called "adventitia"

when composed of areolar CT, with collagen and elastin fibers

84

Blood Vessels:

What branches supply the abdominal GI tract

  • Celiac trunk
  • Superior and inferior mesenteric arteries

85

Smaller branches extend throughout the walls of the GI tract organs within the tunics, and the mucosa contains ___________ ___ __ _____ _________ ____ to protome _________

capillaries that have fenestrated endothelial cells; absorption

86

The veins from the mucosa merge to eventually form the:

hepatic portal system

87

Lymphatic capillaries arise in the mucosa and lacteals within _______ _____, pass through the numerous _______ ___, and deliver ____ to the ________ _____ and then to the ______ _____. 

intestinal villi; lymph nodes; lymph, cisterna chyli ; thoracic duct

88

This structure is a long tube that runs behind the trachea and connects the laryngopharynx superiorly to the stomach inferiorly 

esophagus

89

the esophagus functions solely in _______

propulsion

90

True or False:

Digestion and absorption occur in the esophagus

false

91

________ carries food to the stomach

peristalsis 

92

What type of epithelial cells does the mucosa of the esophagus consist of

non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

93

What is the function of the mucosa non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium in the esophagus

Protection

94

At the connection of the esophagus to the stomach, a thickened band of circular smooth muscle forms the: 

esophageal sphinter

95

What does the esophageal sphincter do?

regulates the passage of the bolus into the stomach and keep stomach acids out of the esophagus

96

In the esophagus, the superior region of the muscularis is composed of:

skeletal muscle

97

In the esophagus, the middle region is composed of:

a mixture of skeletal and smooth muscle

98

In the esophagus, the inferior region of the esophagus is composed of:

more standard smooth muscle

99

What does the muscularis of the esophagus deviate from a standard pattern of smooth muscle

because skeletal muscle contracts more rapidly and can then assure rapid movement of food out of the pharynx before the next respiratory cycle

100

This organ is temporary storage in which the bolus of food is chemically and mechanically digested 

Stomach

101

The mucosa of the stomach consists of  ______ _____

gastric folds

102

what is the function of gastric folds?

to allow the stomach to expand as it fills

103

The stomach has three muscularis layers:

inner oblique layer

middle oblique layer

outer longitudinal layer

104

What is the function of the three muscularis layers of the stomach

to churn food to mechanically digest it

105

When food leaves the stomach and goes to its liquid form, it is then referred to as:

chyme

106

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