What is the function of the Respiratory System?
- Gas exchange
- Gas conditioning
- Sound Production
Which function of the respiratory system supplies the body with oxygen and rids it of carbon dioxide?
External respiration is gas exchange between the __________ and the ________.
External respiration is accomplished by way of the (respiratory/cardiovascular) system
Internal respiration is gas exchange between the __________ and _____ ______.
blood; body cells
Internal respiration is accomplished by way of the (respiratory/cardiovascular) system
Which function of the respiratory system is air warmed, moistened, and cleansed while traveling to the lungs
In the respiratory system, Gas conditioning is accomplished by __________ & __________.
nasal passages; sinuses
Which function of the respiratory system does air vibrate the vocal cords of the larynx as it is expelled from the lungs
Anatomically, the respiratory system can be divided into ______ and ______ respiratory tracts.
Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into ________ and _______ portions
What is the upper respiratory tract comprised of:
- nose and nasal cavities
- paranasal sinuses
The nasal cavity begins at the internal component of the nose and ends as opening to the nasopharynx known as ______
The ______ ______ divides the nasal cavity into right and left portions and forms the medial wall of each cavity
What structures form the lateral wall for each nasal cavity?
Superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae
What is the function of the conchae in the nasal cavity?
to warm, humidify, and cleanse the air within the nasal cavity
There are four bones of the skull that contain air spaces, referred to as:
Why do the paranasal sinuses have spaces in them?
to make the bones lighter in weight
Name the paranasal sinuses
This area of the body is shared by the digestive and respiratory system
What are the three regions the pharynx is split into:
Which region of the pharynx is continuous with the nasal cavity and superior to the soft palate
Which region of the pharynx will you find the opening of the auditory tubes on the lateral walls
Which posterior region of the pharynx will you see the pharyngeal tonsil?
Which region of the pharynx has pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Which region of the pharynx begins at the end of the soft palate and ends at the level of the hyoid bone?
Which region of the pharynx will you find the palatine tonsils
Which region of the pharynx will you find the lingual tonsils?
Which region of the pharynx has nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Which region of the pharynx starts inferior to hyoid bone and is continuous with larynx and terminates at superior border of the esophagus
Which region of the pharynx is lined with nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
The lower respiratory tract can be split into two portions which are:
conducting and respiratory portions
What is the conducting portion of the lower respiratory tract is comprised of:
What is the respiratory portion of the lower respiratory tract is comprised of:
- respiratory bronchioles
- alveolar ducts
what connects the pharynx to the trachea
referred to as the "voice box"
Structure of the lower respiratory tract that is supported by a framework of cartilages, ligaments, and muscles
What are the three major cartilages of the larynx?
- Thryoid cartilage
- Cricoid cartilage
Name the largest cartilage in the layrnx
Which major cartilage of the larynx has an anterior wall and lateral wall
Which major cartilage of the larynx has no posterior wall
Which major cartilage of the larynx has a V-shaped anterior projection called the laryngeal prominence
The thyroid cartilage has a V-shaped anterior projection called the _______ _______.
Which major cartilage of the larynx is usually larger in males compared to females due to testosterone influence on growth of cartilage
Which major cartilage of the larynx is just inferior to the thyroid cartilage
Which major cartilage of the larynx is a complete ring- shaped cartiliage
Which major cartilage of the larynx is a spoon-shaped cartilage that projects superiorly into the pharynx
Which major cartilage of the larynx closes the opening to the larynx when you swallow, preventing materials from entering the lower respiratory tract
Name the three minor cartilages of the larynx
- cuneiform cartilages
- corniculate cartilages
- arytenoid cartilages
What major role do the minor cartilages play in the larynx
they are part of sound production
______ _____ are found in the larynx and are comprised of ______ ____ covered by a mucous membrane
Vocal folds; vocal ligaments
The opening between the vocal folds is the:
The vocal cords plus the rima glottidis are collectively known as the:
When air is forced through the rima glottidis, it causes _________ of the vocal cords, which results in the production of ________
In the lower respiratory tract, this structure is inferior to the larynx, superior to the primary bronchi, and anterior to the esophagus
In the lower respiratory tract, this structure is supported by C-shaped tracheal cartilages
The trachea is supported by C-shaped _______ _______.
In the trachea, posteriorly, the ends of the "C-shaped" tracheal cartilages are connected by the _______ ______.
_______ _____ is a highly branched system of air conducting passages that begin with the primary bronchi and end with the terminal bronchi
The bronchial tree is part of the (conducting/respiratory) portion of the respiratory system
The trachea branches into left and right _______ ______
How many secondary bronchi are on the right primary bronchus?
How many secondary bronchi are on the left primary bronchus
The secondary bronchi divide into __ to __ tertiary bronchi
In a bronchiole tree, as branching continues what is observed as the bronchioles become smaller?
- Incomplete rings of cartilage become smaller and less numerous
- bronchi are lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium
- bronchioles lack cartilage rings and are lined with simple columnar or simple squamous epithelium.
What is the diameter of bronchioles?
< 1 mm in diameter
What are bronchioles walls composed of?
A thick layer of smooth muscle
Contraction of the smooth muscle results in a narrowing of the bronchioles called ___________
Relaxation of the smooth muscle results in a widening of the bronchioles called ___________.
Bronchioles branch into ________ _______, which are the last portions of the conduction portion of the respiratory system
What does the respiratory portion of the lower respiratory system consist of?
- respiratory bronchioles
- alveolar ducts
Terminal bronchioles branch into _________ ___________.
Respiratory bronchioles branch into ______ _______.
Alveolar ducts end with small saccular outpocketings called _________.
Where part of the respiratory portion are respiratory gases diffused between the blood and the air in the lungs
the thin wall of the alveolus
The alveolar wall is formed from two types of cells:
- Alveolar Type I cells
- Alveolar Type II cells
What type of alveolar cell consists of simple squamous epithelial cells to promote rapid diffusion of gases?
Alveolar type I cells
What type of alveolar cell consists of cells almost cuboidal in shape and produce pulmonary surfactant, which decreases surface tension within the alveolus and prevents the collapse of alveoli
Alveolar type II cells
What does pulmonary surfactant in alveolar type II cells do?
decreases surface tension within the alveolus and prevents the collapse of alveoli.
What does the respiratory membrane consist of?
- Plasma membrane of the type I alveolar cell
- fused basement membrane of both cells
- Plasma membrane of the capillary cell
The ___________ ____________ is the diffusion barier across which respiratory gases are exchanged between the blood and the air in alveoli
The _______ ________ engulfs any microorganism or particulate matter that makes its was into the alveolus.
Also known as the dust cell
The ______ are located in the pleural cavities on the lateral sides of the thorax and separated by the mediastinum
The pleural cavities and the outer surface of the lung are lined with a serous membrane called ________
_________ __________ tightly adheres to the outside of the lung
______ ______ lines the pleural cavity itself
visceral and parietal pleura are (continuous/discontinuous) with each other and the space between them is called _____ ______.
continuous; pleural cavity
This organ is conical in shape, has a base inferiorly that rests on the diaphragm and an apex that is its most superior portion.
In the lungs, the apex projects just slightly (superior/inferior) and (anterior/posterior) to the clavicle.
Concerning the lungs, the _______ surface comes in contact with the ribs and the slightly concave ________ surface faces medially toward the mediastinum
Concerning the lungs, the mediastinal surface houses a concave region called the _______.
What passes through the hilum of the lung?
- Pulmonary vessels
- Lymphatic vessels
What is the root of the lung?
all structures within the hilum
The (right/left) lung is slightly smaller than the (right/left) lung because the heart projects slightly to the (right/left) of midline
left; right; left
The heart makes a medial surface indentation on the left lung called the _______ __________.
The left lung has an anterior indented region called the ______ _______.
The left lung has an ______ ______ that divides the lung into two lobes.
In the left lung, the _______ is homologous to the middle lobe of the right lung.
The right lung has two fissures, _______ and _______ fissures that divide the lung into ______ lobes.
oblique; horizontal; three
How many bronchopulmonary segments are there in the right lung?
How many bronchopulmonary segments are there in the left lung.
Each bronchopulmonary segment is supplied by its own _______ ______ and a branch of a pulmonary artery and vein.
Each bronchopulmonary segment is surrounded by and isolated from other segments by ______ _______.
Define pulmonary circulation.
conducts blood to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs
Define bronchial circulation
systemic circulation; delivers blood directly to and from the bronchi and bronchioles