Chapter 25: Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25: Respiratory System Deck (106):
1

What is the function of the Respiratory System?

  • Gas exchange
  • Gas conditioning
  • Sound Production

2

Which function of the respiratory system supplies the body with oxygen and rids it of carbon dioxide?

Gas exchange

3

External respiration is gas exchange between the __________ and the ________.

atmosphere; blood

4

External respiration is accomplished by way of the (respiratory/cardiovascular) system

respiratory 

5

Internal respiration is gas exchange between the __________  and _____ ______.

blood; body cells

6

Internal respiration is accomplished by way of the (respiratory/cardiovascular) system

cardiovascular

7

Which function of the respiratory system is air warmed, moistened, and cleansed while traveling to the lungs

Gas Conditioning

8

In the respiratory system, Gas conditioning​ is accomplished by __________ & __________.

nasal passages; sinuses

9

Which function of the respiratory system does air vibrate the vocal cords of the larynx as it is expelled from the lungs

Sound production

10

Anatomically, the respiratory system can be divided into ______ and ______ respiratory tracts.

upper; lower

11

Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into ________ and _______ portions

conducting; respiratory

12

What is the upper respiratory tract comprised of:

  • nose and nasal cavities
  • paranasal sinuses
  • pharynx

13

The nasal cavity begins at the internal component of the nose and ends as opening to the nasopharynx known as ______

choanae 

14

The ______ ______ divides the nasal cavity into right and left portions and forms the medial wall of each cavity

nasal septum

15

What structures form the lateral wall for each nasal cavity?

Superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae

16

What is the function of the conchae in the nasal cavity?

to warm, humidify, and cleanse the air within the nasal cavity

17

There are four bones of the skull that contain air spaces, referred to as: 

paranasal sinuses 

18

Why do the paranasal sinuses have spaces in them?

to make the bones lighter in weight

19

Name the paranasal sinuses

  • Frontal
  • Ethmoidal
  • Sphenoidal
  • Maxillary

20

This area of the body is shared by the digestive and respiratory system

Pharynx

21

What are the three regions the pharynx is split into:

  1. Nasopharynx
  2. Oropharynx
  3. Laryngopharynx

22

Which region of the pharynx is continuous with the nasal cavity and superior to the soft palate

Nasopharynx

23

Which region of the pharynx will you find the opening of the auditory tubes on the lateral walls

Nasopharynx 

24

Which posterior region of the pharynx will you see the pharyngeal tonsil?

Nasopharynx

25

Which region of the pharynx has pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Nasopharynx 

26

Which region of the pharynx begins at the end of the soft palate and ends at the level of the hyoid bone?

Oropharynx 

27

Which region of the pharynx will you find the palatine tonsils 

Oropharynx 

28

Which region of the pharynx will you find the lingual tonsils?

Oropharynx 

29

Which region of the pharynx has ​nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

​Oropharynx 

30

Which region of the pharynx starts inferior to hyoid bone and is continuous with larynx and terminates at superior border of the esophagus 

Laryngopharynx 

31

Which region of the pharynx is lined with nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

Laryngopharynx 

32

The lower respiratory tract can be split into two portions which are:

conducting and respiratory portions

33

What is the conducting portion of the lower respiratory tract is comprised of: 

  1. Larynx
  2. Trachea
  3. Bronchi
  4. Bronchioles 

34

What is the respiratory portion of the lower respiratory tract is comprised of: 

  1. respiratory bronchioles
  2. alveolar ducts
  3. alveoli

35

what connects the pharynx to the trachea

larynx

36

referred to as the "voice box"

larynx

37

Structure of the lower respiratory tract that is supported by a framework of cartilages, ligaments, and muscles

larynx

38

What are the three major cartilages of the larynx?

  1. Thryoid cartilage
  2. Cricoid cartilage
  3.  Epiglottis

39

Name the largest cartilage in the layrnx

Thyroid cartilage 

40

Which major cartilage of the larynx has an anterior wall and lateral wall

Thyroid cartilage 

41

Which major cartilage of the larynx has no posterior wall

thyroid cartilage 

42

Which major cartilage of the larynx has a V-shaped anterior projection called the laryngeal prominence

thyroid cartilage 

43

The thyroid cartilage has a V-shaped anterior projection called the _______  _______.

laryngeal prominence 

44

Which major cartilage of the larynx is usually larger in males compared to females due to testosterone influence on growth of cartilage

Thyroid cartilage 

45

Which major cartilage of the larynx is just inferior to the thyroid cartilage

cricoid cartilage 

46

Which major cartilage of the larynx is a complete ring- shaped cartiliage

cricoid cartilage

47

Which major cartilage of the larynx is a spoon-shaped cartilage that projects superiorly into the pharynx

epiglottis

48

Which major cartilage of the larynx closes the opening to the larynx when you swallow, preventing materials from entering the lower respiratory tract

epiglottis 

49

Name the three minor cartilages of the larynx 

  • cuneiform cartilages
  • corniculate cartilages
  • arytenoid cartilages

50

What major role do the minor cartilages play in the larynx

they are part of sound production

51

______ _____ are found in the larynx and are comprised of ______ ____ covered by a mucous membrane

Vocal folds; vocal ligaments

52

The opening between the vocal folds is the:

rima glottidis 

53

The vocal cords plus the rima glottidis are collectively known as the:

glottis

54

When air is forced through the rima glottidis, it causes _________ of the vocal cords, which results in the production of ________

vibration; sound

55

In the lower respiratory tract, this structure is inferior to the larynx, superior to the primary bronchi, and anterior to the esophagus

trachea 

56

In the lower respiratory tract, this structure is supported by C-shaped tracheal cartilages

Trachea 

57

The trachea is supported by C-shaped _______ _______.

tracheal cartilages

58

In the trachea, posteriorly, the ends of the "C-shaped" tracheal cartilages are connected by the _______ ______.

trachealis muscle

59

_______ _____ is a highly branched system of air conducting passages that begin with the primary bronchi and end with the terminal bronchi

bronchial tree 

60

The bronchial tree is part of the (conducting/respiratory) portion of the respiratory system

conducting 

61

The trachea branches into left and right _______ ______

Primary bronchi

62

How many secondary bronchi are on the right primary bronchus?

Three

63

How many secondary bronchi are on the left primary bronchus

two

64

The secondary bronchi divide into __ to __  tertiary bronchi

8; 10

65

In a bronchiole tree, as branching continues what is observed as the bronchioles become smaller?

 

(3 observations)

  • Incomplete rings of cartilage become smaller and less numerous
  • bronchi are lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium 
  • bronchioles lack cartilage rings and are lined with simple columnar or simple squamous epithelium.

66

What is the diameter of bronchioles?

< 1 mm in diameter 

67

What are bronchioles walls composed of?

A thick layer of smooth muscle

68

Contraction of the smooth muscle results in a narrowing of the bronchioles called ___________

bronchoconstriction

69

Relaxation of the smooth muscle results in a widening of the bronchioles called ___________.

bronchodilation

70

Bronchioles branch into ________ _______, which are the last portions of the conduction portion of the respiratory system

terminal bronchioles 

71

What does the respiratory portion of the lower respiratory system consist of?

  • respiratory bronchioles
  • alveolar ducts
  • alveoli 

72

Terminal bronchioles branch into _________ ___________.

respiratory bronchioles 

73

Respiratory bronchioles branch into ______ _______.

alveolar ducts

74

Alveolar ducts end with small saccular outpocketings called _________.

alveoli

75

Where part of the respiratory portion are respiratory gases diffused between the blood and the air in the lungs

the thin wall of the alveolus 

76

The alveolar wall is formed from two types of cells:

  1.  Alveolar Type I cells
  2. Alveolar Type II cells

77

What type of alveolar cell consists of simple squamous epithelial cells to promote rapid diffusion of gases?

Alveolar type I cells

78

What type of alveolar cell consists of cells almost cuboidal in shape and produce pulmonary surfactant, which decreases surface tension within the alveolus and prevents the collapse of alveoli 

Alveolar type II cells

79

What does pulmonary surfactant ​ in alveolar type II cells do?

decreases surface tension within the alveolus and prevents the collapse of alveoli. 

80

What does the respiratory membrane consist of?

  • Plasma membrane of the type I alveolar cell
  • fused basement membrane of both cells
  • Plasma membrane of the capillary cell

81

The ___________ ____________ is the diffusion barier across which respiratory gases are exchanged between the blood and the air in alveoli

respiratory membrane

82

The _______ ________ engulfs any microorganism or particulate matter that makes its was into the alveolus. 

alveolar macrophage 

83

Also known as the dust cell

alveolar macrophage

84

The ______ are located in the pleural cavities on the lateral sides of the thorax and separated by the mediastinum

lungs

85

The pleural cavities and the outer surface of the lung are lined with a serous membrane called ________

pleura 

86

_________ __________ tightly adheres to the outside of the lung

visceral pleura 

87

______ ______ lines the pleural cavity itself

parietal pleura 

88

visceral and parietal pleura are (continuous/discontinuous) with each other and the space between them is called _____ ______. 

continuous; pleural cavity 

89

This organ is conical in shape, has a base inferiorly that rests on the diaphragm and an apex that is its most superior portion.

Lungs

90

In the lungs, the apex projects just slightly (superior/inferior) and (anterior/posterior) to the clavicle.

superior; posterior 

91

Concerning the lungs, the _______ surface comes in contact with the ribs and the slightly concave ________ surface faces medially toward the mediastinum 

coastal; mediastinal 

92

Concerning the lungs, the mediastinal surface houses a concave region called the _______.

hilum 

93

What passes through the hilum of the lung?

  • Bronchi
  • Pulmonary vessels
  • Lymphatic vessels
  • Nerves 

94

What is the root of the lung?

all structures within the hilum

95

The (right/left) lung is slightly smaller than the (right/left) lung because the heart projects slightly to the (right/left) of midline

left; right; left

96

The heart makes a medial surface indentation on the left lung called the _______ __________.

cardiac impression

97

The left lung has an anterior indented region called the ______ _______.

cardiac notch

98

The left lung has an  ______ ______ that divides the lung into two lobes.

oblique fissure

99

In the left lung, the _______ is homologous to the middle lobe of the right lung.

lingula 

100

The right lung has two fissures, _______ and _______ fissures that divide the lung into ______ lobes.

oblique; horizontal; three 

101

How many bronchopulmonary segments are there in the right lung?

10

102

How many bronchopulmonary segments are there in the left lung.

8-10

103

Each bronchopulmonary segment is supplied by its own _______ ______ and a branch of a pulmonary artery and vein.

tertiary bronchus

104

Each bronchopulmonary segment is surrounded by and isolated from other segments by ______ _______.

connective tissue

105

Define pulmonary circulation.

 

conducts blood to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs

 

106

Define bronchial circulation 

systemic circulation; delivers blood directly to and from the bronchi and bronchioles