Chapter 23: Vessels and Circulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23: Vessels and Circulation Deck (67):
1

Three classes of blood vessels

  1.  Arteries
  2. Capillaries
  3. Veins

2

Carries blood away from the heart and become progressively smaller as they branch and finally result in capillaries

Arteries

3

Return blood to the heart and become progressively larger as they merge and are closer to the heart

Veins

4

Connect arteries & veins and are thr site if all exchange

Capillaries

5

Three layers of arteries and veins (From outer to inner)

  1. Tunica externa
  2. Tunica media
  3. Tunica intima

6

Blood vessel tunics:
Composed of circularly arranged smooth muscle

Tunica media

7

Blood vessel tunics:

Connective tissue that helps anchor the blood vessel to an organ

tunica externa

8

_____ _______ run through the tunica externa, which are smaller arteries that supply the larger arteries.

vasa vasorum

9

Blood vessel tunics:

composed of an endothelium and a subendothelial layer of areolar CT

tunica intima

10

Compared with veins, arteries have (wider/narrower) lumen

Narrower

11

Compared with veins, arteries have (thicker/thinner) walls

thicker

12

What is the thickest tunic in arteries?

tunica media

13

What is the thickest tunic in veins?

tunica externa

14

Compared with veins, arteries have (more/less) elastic and collagen fibers in walls

more

15

______ have no valves, as seen in most _____

arteries; veins

16

Types of arteries

  1. Elastic
  2. Muscular
  3. Arteriole

17

Name the type of artery with the following characteristics:

  • Largest of the arteries (aorta, pulmonary, brachiocephalic, common carotids, subclavian)

Elastic arteries

18

Name the type of artery with the following characteristics:

Medium diameter arteries

Muscular arteries

19

Name the type of artery with the following characteristic:

  • Smallest arteries

Arterioles

20

Name the type of artery with the following characteristic:

Have less than six layers of smooth muscle in their tunica media

Arterioles

21

Name the type or artery with the folowing characteristics:

Most examples are near the heart

Elastic artery

22

Name the type or artery with the following characteristics:

present in all three tunics and allows these arteries to stretch under the increased pressure generated by blood flow from the heart

Elastic arteries

23

Name the type or artery with the folowing characteristics:

These arteries branch into muscular arteries

Elastic arteries

24

Name the type of artery with the following characteristic:

Possess internal and external elastic lamina

 

Muscular arteries

25

Name the type of artery with the following characteristic:

Thicker tunica media

Muscular arteries

26

Name the type of artery with the following characteristic:

Vasoconstriction occurs resulting in elevation of blood pressure

Arterioles

27

Name the type of artery with the following characteristic:

Vasodilation occurs resulting in the lowering of blood pressure

arterioles

28

Which blood vessel has the following characteristic:

Smallest of blood vessels

Capillaries

29

Which blood vessel has the following characteristic:

Diameter only slightly larger than an erythrocyte

Capillaries

30

Which blood vessel has the following characteristic:

Wall consists soley of the tunica intima

Capillaries

31

Which blood vessel has the following characteristic:

Only type of blood vessel where exchange can occur between blood and cells outside of the bloodstream

Capillaries

32

Capillaries form ______ beds

capillary

A image thumb
33

Capillary beds are fed by a __________ whose (proximal/distal) end is surrounded by smooth muscles while the (proximal/distal) end, called the _________ ___________, lacks smooth muscles

metarteriole; proximal; distal; thoroughfare channell

A image thumb
34

In capllary beds, the thoroughfare channell connects to a ________ _______

postcapillary venule

A image thumb
35

In capillary beds, branches from the metarteriole that begin with a ring of smooth muscle on their walls are called ______ _______.

true capillaries 

36

In capillary beds, the ring of smooth muscle called the ____________ ___________, controls blood flow into the capillary.

Pre-capillary sphincter 

37

Name the three types of capillaries

  1. Continous
  2. Fenestrated
  3. Sinusoid

38

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

most common type of capillary

continuous capillaries

39

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

endothelial cells form a continous and complete lining with no holes aided by the presence of tight junctions

continuous capillaries

40

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

examples: muscles & CNS

continuous capillaries 

41

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

endothelial cells possess small "holes" to allow fluid exchange between blood and interstitial fluid

fenestrated capillaries 

42

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

Example: small intestine 

Fenestrated capillaries

43

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

Example: most endocrine glands

Fenestrated capillaries

44

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

Example: kidney 

Fenestrated capillaries 

45

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

have big gaps between endothelial cells that promotes transport of large molecules and cells to an from the blood.

Sinusoid capillaries 

46

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

​Example: bone marrow

Sinusoid capillaries 

47

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

Example: anterior pituitary 

Sinusoid capillaries 

48

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

Example: Spleen

Sinusoid capillaries

49

Which type of capillary has the following characteristic:

Example: Liver

Sinusoid capillaries

50

Pressure in (arteries/veins) is much lower than in (arteries/veins)

veins; arteries 

51

At rest, the body's veins hold about 60% of the body's blood. Thus, veins function as ________ __________.

vein reservoirs 

52

What are venules?

the smallest veins

53

Venules are companion vessels with _______

arterioles

54

the smallest venules ae located at the (proximal/distal) end of a capillary bed and are called ___________ _________.

distal; postcapillary venules

55

Define diapedesis

the migration of leukocytes from the bloodstream to the body

56

This phenomenon occurs through the walls of the postcapillary venules 

diapedesis 

57

________ merge to form veins

Venules

58

_______ are larger than venules

Veins

59

Smaller and medium sized veins travel with (elastic/muscular/arterioles) arteries.

muscular

60

Large veins travel with (elastic/muscular/arterioles)​ arteries

elastic 

61

Why are valves present in veins?

because blood pressure in veins is too low to overcome the forces of gravity

62

In veins, valves are formed from the tunica (externa/media/intima) and prevent blood from pooling in the limbs

intima

63

Describe a skeletal muscle pump

Blood pumps toward the heart as skeletal muscles contract. 

64

Contractions of the heart produce oscillations in blood pressure that are felt as the ______

pulse

65

Maximum pressure occurs during contraction of the heart and is called ______

systolic

66

Minimum pressure occurs while heart is filling and is called _______

diastolic

67

What are the typical values of systolic/diastolic 

120/80 mm Hg