Chapter 21 -Endo Sys. Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Chapter 21 -Endo Sys. > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 21 -Endo Sys. Deck (35)
Loading flashcards...

What is Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)?

Produced by Hypothalamus and released by posterior pituitary gland. Peptide hormone. Targets kidneys, Increase water absorption
Test - lavender on ice
Hyposecretion - Diabetes insipidus (dehydration)
hypersecretion - edema


What is Oxytocin OT?

Produced by Hypothalamus and released by posterior pituitary gland..Protein hormone
Targets the uterus, breast, and prostate. Assists in childbirth by increasing the force of contractions,causes milk ejection, and causes contraction during sexual arousal to facilitate sperm motility


What is Growth hormone (GH) ?

Produced by Anterior Pituitary . Protein Hormone
Promotes growth and tissue maintenance
Test - red or gold

Hyposecretion of GH - Dwarfism
Hypersecretion of GH -Gigantism


What is Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)?

Produced by Anterior Pituitary. Peptide hormone .
Stimulates pigment regulation.


What is Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)?

Produced by Anterior Pituitary. Peptide hormone .
Stimulates adrenal cortex. Aldosterone secretion

Hyposecretion of ACTH -Addison’s disease (hypocortisolism)- tan, skinny
Hypersecretion of ACTH Cushing’s syndrome - issues with bones


What is Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ?

Produced by Anterior Pituitary. Glycoprotein
Stimulates thyroid, releases thyroxine
red or gold

Hyposecretion of TSH - too little secreted -Diabetes insipidus
Hypersecretion of TSH - too much secreted


What is Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) ?

Produced by Anterior Pituitary. Glycoprotein
In women - stimulates ovaries to produce ova and estrogren
In men - Stimulates testes to produce sperm and testosterone

Test - red or gold


What is Prolactin (PRL) ?

Produced by Anterior Pituitary..Peptide
In women - helps produce breast milk
In men - Works with LH


What is melatonin?

Produced by Pineal Gland -between the cerebral hemispheres
. Amino acid hormone . Regulates biological clock.

Hyposecretion-Disturb the sleep cycle, late period


What is T3 Triiodothyronine and T4tetraiodothyronine?

Produced by Thyroid Gland .
Energy production, protein synthesis, and tissue repair
Test -red or gold

hypo- cretinism or hypothyroidism and myxemeda
hyper - graves


What is Calcitonin?

Produced by Thyroid Gland . Test red or gold
Increase bone calcium
Decreases blood calcium

Hyposecretion - hypercalcemia - no Ca in bone
Hypersecretion -more Ca in bone


What is parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Produced by Parathyroid Glands (Small glands embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland). polypeptide
Antagonist to calcitonin.
Decreases bone calcium and increases blood calcium.
Stimulates the kidneys to produce vitamin D. Stimulates osteoclasts - helps break down bone.

Hyposecretion- Less osteoclast activity - Ca wont leave bone
Hypersecretion- extra bone breakdown, more in blood


What is thymosin and Thymopoietin?

Produced in thymus - reaches max size at teen years.
Peptide hormone
Involved in the maturation of T lymphocytes

Hyposecretion - decrease in immunity. T Lymph decrease


What is Aldosterone?

Steroid -mineralcorticoid
Produced by Adrenal Cortex . Retain of Na and H2O
red or gold or lavender on ice, patient may be required to be upright or lying down for 15-30 minutes prior to blood draw.


What is Coritsol?

Steroid-glucocorticoid . test green or red or gold
Produced by Adrenal Cortex. Decrease protein synthesis and inflammation


What is epinephrine and norepinephrine?

Produced in the Adrenal medulla. Preps body for stress. Increase heart rate, BP

Hypersecretion - Increase in blood pressure, tachycardia
Pheochromocytoma - benign tumor


What is Glucagon - Alpha cells?

Produced in Pancreas. Increase blood sugar, decrease protein synthesis
Glucagon Test- lavender
Glucose tolerance test (GTT) – red or gold, green, or gray

Hyposecretion - hypoglycemia
Hypersecretion - hyperglycemia, also known as diabetes mellitus


What is Insulin - Beta cells?

Produced in Pancreas. Decrease blood sugar and increase protein synthesis
Test- red or gold

Hyposecretion of insulin
Type 1 diabetes mellitus -Insulin-dependent
Type 2 diabetes mellitus - Non-insulin-dependent. Obese


What are estrogen and progesterone?

Steroid . Produced in gonads - ovaries. Develop sex characteristics. sex hormone
Test- red or gold/green - e
red or gold - P

Hyposecretion- before or during menopause - Hot flashes, dry vagine. Ovarian cancer


What is testosterone?

Steroid Produced in testes . Develop sex characteristics. sex hormone
Test red or gold


What is the difference between the nervous system and the endocrine system?

Nervous system
Acts very rapidly through nerves and nerve impulses, or action potentials
Endocrine system
Slower acting, but is very important in terms of health and disease for its longer acting effects
Chemical messengers called hormones


Why are endocrine glands referred to as ductless?

Substances secreted by endocrine glands directly enter the circulatory system or act directly on specific cells


What are steroids?

Built from cholesterol
Lipid-soluble and can easily cross cell membranes
Target receptors on the nuclear membrane
Once inside the nucleus, they turn specific genes on or off
Gene activation leads to production of cellular enzymes that cause cellular changes


What are proteins?

Not lipid soluble
Structures in the cell membranes of a target tissue
Combine with a chemical such as a hormone or drug to alter the functioning of the cell
Hormone binds to receptors on the cell membrane
A “second messenger” is activated


What do amino acids require that lipids dont?

require a second messenger and lipids dont


Why are endrocrine disorders caused?

Usually the result of “hypo” or “hyper” secretion of hormones


What is pituitary gland?

Called the “master gland”
Also is called the hypophysis


What happens if there is a hyposecretion of thyroid hormones?

Slowing of the metabolism
Dry skin, fatigue, cold intolerance, constipation, and difficulty getting pregnant
Congenital form of hypothyroidism is called cretinism
Mental and physical growth retardation


What happens if there is a hypersecretion of thyroid hormones?

Increase in metabolism
Increase in heart rate, heart palpitations, nervousness, insomnia, heat intolerance, and have protruding eyeballs (exophthalmos)
One form is called Graves’ disease


What functions does Pancreas have?

Both exocrine and endocrine functions
Endocrine pancreas is made up of groups of cells called the islets of Langerhans.


What is Atrial natriuretic factor ?

Protein hormone , produced in the atrium
Regulate high blood pressure.eliminate sodium and consequently water


What is Erythropoietin?

Amino acid hormone
Secreted by kidneys. synthesis of erythrocytes
Test - red or gold


How is homeostasis achieved ?

negative feedback and positive feedback
Negative feedback loop
Occurs when there is a drop in hormone level
A chain reaction occurs that increase the amount of hormone in the blood. Regulation occurs.
Brings the system back to its original state

Positive feedback loop
Like a highway going in only one direction
Does not provide much opportunity to return to the initial state


What happens when you get older?

Anterior pituitary gland secretes less growth hormone
Thyroid commonly decreases its output of thyroid hormones- slow metabolism
Parathyroid hormone levels increase and calcitonin levels fall. - osteoporosis
Adrenal glands produce less aldosterone


bone structure that protects the pituitary gland

paranasal sinus
sphenoid bone