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Flashcards in Ch 10 Circulatory System Deck (94)
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What is blood?

Connective tissue because it has a nonliving matrix and living cells
Plasma is the nonliving fluid component of blood.
Formed elements (below) are the cells and cell fragments.
Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs)
Leukocytes (white blood cells, WBCs)
Thrombocytes (platelets)

liver, spleen and bone marrow remove, phagocytize and destroy old RBC


What is Hematopoiesis?

Formation of red and white cells from stem cells- Stem cells are always first
Two types myeloid from bone marrow (RBC, platelets, NEB and monocytes) and lymphoid from lymphatic system (b and t cells)
During fetal development-RBCs are made in the yolk sac, the liver, and the spleen.
After birth - Most blood cells are produced in red bone marrow by stem cells called hemocytoblasts.
Life span of an RBC is about 120 days


What is Erythropoietin ?

Regulates erythropoiesis = production of RBCs
Produced by the kidneys and released when oxygen concentrations in the blood get low. Stimulates red bone marrow to produce more RBC


What do V 12 and folic acid do?

Affect erythropoiesis
it is absorbed from the small intestine and functions in DNA synthesis


What does Iron do?

Iron is necessary to make hemoglobin.
it is absorbed from the small intestine
Anemia -Too few RBCs, too little iron, too little hemoglobin, or insufficient vitamin B 12


What are the nutrients in plasma?

Amino acids, glucose, nucleotides, and lipids that have all been absorbed from the digestive tract
Lipids must combine with molecules called lipoproteins to be transported by plasma.
Different types of lipoproteins are chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (bad for you - clogs arteries), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) (protects against heart disease)


What are Globulins?

Protein in plasma - 36%
Alpha globulin - Produced in liver , Transports lipids and fat soluble vitamins
Beta globulin - Produced in liver , Transports lipids and fat soluble vitamins
Gamma globulin - Produced in lymphatic tissues , are antibodies


What are Albumins?

Protein in plasma - 60%, smallest but most abundant
Found in the liver . Help maintain osmotic pressure .
Participate in blood pressure regulation, transport hormones


What are fibrogens?

Protein in plasma - 4%
Found in the liver. Key role in clotting


What are the gases in plasma?

Dissolved in plasma
Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen


What are electrolytes in plasma?

Dissolved in the plasma
Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, and sulfate


What are the Nonprotein nitrogenous substances ?

Amino acids, urea, and uric acid


What are erythrocytes?

Small cells that have a biconcave shape
Mature RBCs do not have a nucleus and cannot reproduce.
Transports O2 and CO2.


What is hemoglobin?

A pigment in RBCs
Hemoglobin that carries oxygen is called oxyhemoglobin and is bright red in color
Hemoglobin that is not carrying oxygen is called deoxyhemoglobin and has a darker red color
Carboxyhemoglobin refers to hemoglobin that is carrying carbon dioxide.


Centrifuged sample of blood

packed cell volume
Percentage of RBCs in relationship to the total blood volume is called the hematocrit or packed cell volume
Normal hematocrit is about 37 to 43 percent in females and 43 to 49 percent in males
On top of the RBCs is the plasma.
Between is a thin layer that is whitish in color and is referred to as the “buffy coat”
White blood cells and platelets


How are olds RBC filtered and what do they become?

Average life span of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days.
Old RBCs are filtered out by macrophages in the liver and spleen.
One of the substances released from destroyed RBCs is a pigment called biliverdin that is converted to bilirubin in the liver.
Bilirubin is used to make bile, a substance that emulsifies or breaks apart fat molecule.
Accumulation of bile causes jaundice


What is Anemia?

Occurs when the blood has less than its normal oxygen-carrying capacity
RBC count, or hemoglobin concentration, is less than normal
Normal level in men is 13.8 to 17.2 grams/100 mL
Normal level in women is 12.1 to 15.1 grams/100 mL
Signs and symptoms
Tiredness, weakness, pallor, tachycardia, numbness or coldness of the hands and feet, dizziness, headache, and jaundice


What is Iron deficiency anemia?

Iron is needed to make hemoglobin, so low iron levels cause low hemoglobin levels.
When there isnt enough iron, it is pulled from the bone marrow
Pregnant women, heavy menstrual cycles, and chronic bleeding conditions such as ulcers and colon cancer


What is Aplastic anemia?

Result of bone marrow destruction due to toxic chemicals. All cell lines have been depleted
Damages bone marrow
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy, as well as some cancers and toxins


What is Hemolytic anemia?

Sickle cell disease, an autosomal recessive condition
RBCs that are normal in shape will sickle or hemolysied (becomes hard) and this will cause them to get stuck in capillaries (destroys RBCs)
Joint and chest pain, numbness in extremities, jaundice, infections, sores on the skin, delayed growth, stroke, seizures, and breathing difficulties, retina damage, spleen, liver, or kidney and lung damage
Antibiotics, blood transfusions, pain medications, bone marrow transplants, supplemental oxygen


What is Pernicious (megaloblastic) anemia?

Pernicious anemia is caused by the loss of stomach cells that produce intrinsic factor which allows for the absorption of B12. - So B12 and folic acid deficiency.
All cell lines become affected
Its a type of megaloblastic anemia - causes enlarged RBC that cannot absorb b12 or folic acid
More often called egaloblastic anemia
Causes excess of immature RBCs


What are WBCs?

Destroys pathogenic organisms
Categorized into two groups based on whether or not they have granules in their cytoplasm
Granulocytes have granules in their cytoplasm
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
Agranulocytes do not have granules in their cytoplasm.
Monocytes and lymphocytes
All leukocytes contain a nucleus.


What are Neutrophils?

they are 60% of WBC
have granules
Nucleus with three to five lobes and have phagocytic qualities
Release pyogenes causing fever
Destruction of bacteria with lysosomal enzymes and their numbers increase in the early stage of acute inflammation.
stain tan, pink, or lavendar


What are Eosinophils?

(3%) of WBCs
Fight parasitic infections and are also increased in number in people with acute or active allergies
nucleus is bilobed- stain red/orange in acid stain


What are basophils

<1% of WBCs
Release substances such as histamine, which promotes inflammation
Release heparin, which is an anticoagulant to prevent blood clot formation
nucleus is bilobed but looks like it takes over the whole cell , stains blue in basic stain
liver and lungs have the most basophils
Do not phagocytize - they swell the area by histamine


What are Monocytes?

8% of wbcs - very big kidney shaped almost take over the cell with mononucleus - bean shaped
Agranulocytes - cytoplasmic granules are absent
Active and quite large called (macrophages) when they leave the blood vessel and enter tissues
2-3 times larger than RBC. Nucleus can be spherical or lobed.
phagocytizes large particles - primary function
they engulf not only pathogens but also old RBC
increase in chronic infection - TB


What are lymphocytes?

25-33% of wbcs
only a little larger than wbcs. the nucleus almost fills the whole cell but you can see a little cytoplasm - less than mono and more than baso
dense round nucleus
Produce Ab - lives the longest
provides immunity
T cell, b-Cell and NK cell
increase in viral infections


What is a normal WBC count and what happens if low or elevated?

A normal WBC count is between 5.0 and 10.0 cells per 10 to the 9 per liter
Significantly elevated = leukocytosis
Infection, by cancer, and by some drugs
Below normal = leukopenia
Viral infections or congenital bone marrow disorders, cancer, immune disorders, and some drugs
A differential WBC count lists the percentages of the different types of leukocytes in a sample of blood


What happens at the beginning of a bacterial infection or acute inflammation?

Number of neutrophils increases


What happens 2 weeks after a bacterial infection?

Monocytes increase