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1

Anatomy

Study of body structure . Position of body structures
eg The heart is hollow

2

Physiology

Study of function

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What are the Branches of anatomy -

Gross Anatomy-Study of large or gross structures, done through dissection and visible inspection
Microscopic Anatomy ( 2 parts)
Cytology –study of structure, function and cell development
Histology-study of tissues and organs
Developmental Anatomy-studies growth and development, e.g.- embryology
Comparative Anatomy-Comparison of human body to that of the animals
Systematic Anatomy-The study of structure and functions of various organs e.g. Dermatology (skin, hair and nails)

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Metabolism

Functional activity of a cell that result in growth ,digestion, absorption and secretions resulting in the release of energy-2 processes

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Anabolism:

building up of complex materials from simple material, e.g. food

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Catabolism:

The breaking down and changing of complex materials into simpler ones with the release of energy and CO2

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Homeostasis

Relative consistency of the body’s internal environment
Dynamic equilibrium -Body conditions must remain stable
Illness results if internal conditions change to any great degree

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What happens if homeostasis fails?

Local disease – restricted to a specific part of the body
Systemic disease – affects several organ systems or the entire body
Acute diseases – occur suddenly and last a short time
Chronic diseases – develop slowly and are long term

9

Classify the organization of the body from the chemical level to the organism

Atom
Molecule
Organelle
Cell
Tissue
Organs
Organ system
Organism

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Atoms

Matter is anything that takes up space and has weight
Required for life: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and sulfur (S)
which all can combine to make water, glucose, proteins, and DNA

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Cell

Basic structural and functional unit of life is the cell

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Tissues and what are the four types

When cells act together to perform a specific function, the next level of organization is classified as a tissue
Four basic types of tissues in the body are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue

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Muscle tissue types, function and location

Skeletal Muscle - look cylindercal with striations and lots of nuclei . They move throughout the body wherever voluntary movement takes place. Functions: Movement of body parts
Cardiac- Short branching cells with striations and single nucleus. Partake in intercellular communication between cells. Location: Heart. Function: Heart contraction for blood circluation
Smooth muscle: Short taper cells no striations and single nucleus . Location: Walls of blood vessels and walls of hollow organs like stomach and uterus Function: Maintains blood vessel diameter. Controls food movement through digestive tract, urine in urinary system, egg and sperm in reproductive tract

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Epithelial tissue type, function and location

Flat cells, cuboidal, columnar or transitional, can be arranged in a simple layer , stratified , or pseudostratified.
Locations: body surface and cavities. Makes up skin and lining of digestive tract

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Connective tissue type, function and location

Most abundant and varied, consists of cells and intracellular matrix
Locations: Throughout body, bone, cartilage, blood and collagen .
Functions: Movement , storage of minerals, transport f oxygen and CO, energy source, protection and support

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Nervous tissue type, function and location

Neurons and neuroglia
Location: Brain , spinal cord and nerves
Functions: Receives, integrates, responds to various internal and external stimuli

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Organ and organ system

Structure formed by organization of two or more different tissue types that work together to carry out specific functions
Organ system - Organs join together to carry out vital functions

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Interaugmentary System: Function and Consists of

Function- Sense organ, regulates temperature, prevents water loss, produces vitamin D precursors
Consists of: skin, hair, nails and sweat glands

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Skeletal system: Function and Consists of

Function: provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, stores minerals and fat
Consists of: bones, cartilage, ligament, joints

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Muscular System: Function and Consists of

Function: Produces body movements, maintains posture, produces body heat
Consists of muscles attached to skeleton

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Lymphatic System: Function and Consists of

Function: Removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, absorbs fat from digestive tract
Consists of: tonsils
thymus
lymph nodes
spleen

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Respiratory System: Function and Consists of

Function: Exchanges O2 and CO2 between blood, air and regulates blood pH
Consists of: nose
nasal cavity
trachea
lungs
bronchi
pharynx
larynx

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Digestive System: Function and Consists of

Function: Performs mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, adsorption of nutrients, and elimination of waste
Consists of: Pharynx
mouth
salivary glands
esophagus
stomach
pancreas
small intestine
large intestine
live
gallbladder
appendix
rectum
anus

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Nervous System : Function and Consists of

Function: Major regulatory system that detects sensations, controls movements, intellectual functions
Consists of: Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves and Sensory receptors

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Endocrine System: Function and Consists of

Functions: Influences metabolism, growth, reproduction
Consists of: hypothalumus
pineal body
pituitary
parathyroids
thyroid
thymus
adrenals
pancreas
testes
ovaries

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Cardiovascular System : Function and Consists of

Functions: Transports , nutrients, waste products, gases and hormones throughout the body, body temp regulation, immune response
Consists of: Heart, blood, vessels, blood

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Urinary System: Function and Consists of

Functions: Removes waste product from blood, regulates pH, ion balance, water balance
Consists of: kidney
ureter
urinary bladder
urethra

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Female Reproductive System: Function and Consists of

Functions: Produces oocytes, fertilization site, fetal development , produces hormones
Consists of: Mammary glands, vagina , uterus

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Male Reproductive System: Function and Consists of

Function: Produces and transfers sperm cells to female
Consists of: Testes, Ducts, Penis

30

What are the different Body Cavities

Dorsal- on posterior or towards the back. Divided into Cranial (close to head) and Spinal
Ventral - Towards the front . Divided into thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity.